1_500 Thesaurus

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and
Phrases, by Roget

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Title: Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body

Author: Roget

Release Date: April 19, 2004 [eBook #10681]

Language: English

Character set encoding: US-ASCII


These files were assembled by L. John Old, Napier University, Edinburgh,
from MICRA’s contributed eBook of Roget’s Thesaurus (Project Gutenberg’s

Poster’s note: The dagger symbol has been replaced
by the carat “^” for this plain-text file. You may
interpret the carat as a dagger in the original
_except_ in one place, where the carat itself is
defined in the Special Characters List in section 550.





1. Existence — N. existence, being, entity, ens [Lat.], esse [Lat.],
reality, actuality; positiveness &c adj.; fact, matter of fact,
sober reality; truth &c 494; actual existence.
presence &c (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c 120.
stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c 515; no joke.
center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital
[Science of existence], ontology.
V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain,
be the case; occur &c (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself,
pass the time, vegetate.
consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be
constituted by.
come into existence &c n.; arise &c (begin) 66; come forth &c
(appear) 446.
become &c (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c 161.
abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay.
Adj. existing &c v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c n.;
extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed.
real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c 494; substantial,
substantive; self-existing, self-existent; essential.
well-founded, well-grounded; unideal^, unimagined; not potential &c
2; authentic.
Adv. actually &c adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed;
de facto, ipso facto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; ergo sum cogito [Lat.], thinkest thou
existence doth depend on time? [Byron].

2. Inexistence — N. inexistence^; nonexistence, nonsubsistence;
nonentity, nil; negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility^, nihilism;
tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance; absence &c 187; no such thing &c
4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
annihilation; extinction &c (destruction) 162; extinguishment,
extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration.
V. not exist &c 1; have no existence &c 1; be null and void; cease to
exist &c 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c adj.; die
out; disappear &c 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind;
go, be no more; die &c 360.
annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c 756; destroy &c 162;
take away; remove &c (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate.
Adj. inexistent^, nonexistent &c 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted;
absent &c 187; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary.
unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus [Lat.];
unsubstantial &c 4; vain.
unborn, uncreated^, unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade.
perished, annihilated, &c v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost,
vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c (dead) 360.
fabulous, ideal &c (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c 514.
Adv. negatively, virtually &c adj..
Phr. non ens [Lat.].


3. Substantiality — N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being,
thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence;
creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff, substratum; matter
&c 316; corporeity^, element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality,
substantialness, vital part.
[Totality of existences], world &c 318; plenum.
Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible
&c (material) 316; corporeal.
Adv. substantially &c adj.; bodily, essentially.

4. Unsubstantiality — N. unsubstantiality^, insubstantiality;
nothingness, nihility^; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing.
nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never
a one, ne’er a one [Contr.]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing
whatever, nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c
(smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no
importance, matter of no consequence.
thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot
voter; nominis umbra [Lat.], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et
praeterea nihil [Lat.].
shadow; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (imagination)
515; ignis fatuus &c (luminary) 423 [Lat.]; such stuff as dreams are
made of [Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c 353; baseless fabric
of a vision [Tempest]; mockery.
hollowness, blank; void &c (absence) 187.
inanity, fool’s paradise.
V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c 449.
Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without
foundation, having no foundation.
visionary &c (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c 137; spectral &c 980;
dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery,
illusory, insubstantial, unreal.
vacant, vacuous; empty &c 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow;
nominal; null; inane.
Phr. there’s nothing in it; an ocean of dreams without a sound


Internal conditions

5. Intrinsicality — N. intrinsicality^, inbeing^, inherence, inhesion^;
subjectiveness; ego; egohood^; essence, noumenon; essentialness^ &c
adj.; essential part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith,
marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c
(importance) 642.
principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis^,
habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition.
endowment, capacity; capability &c (power) 157.
moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c
(speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176;
V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c adj..
Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical^;
fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate,
inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous^,
haematobious^, syngenic^; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary,
inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite^; connate, running in the
blood; ingenerate^, ingenite^; indigenous; in the grain &c n.; bred in
the bone, instinctive; inward, internal &c 221; to the manner born;
characteristic &c (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable,
incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed.
Adv. intrinsically &c adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect,
practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly.
Phr. character is higher than intellect [Emerson]; come give us a taste
of your quality [Hamlet]; magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna
[Lat.] [Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Lat.] [Cicero];
vital spark of heavenly flame [Pope].

External conditions

6. Extrinsicality — N. extrinsicality^, objectiveness, non ego;
extraneousness &c 57; accident; appearance, phenomenon &c 448.
Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical^;
extraneous &c (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious^,
adscititious^; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent,
implanted, ingrafted^; inculcated, infused.
outward, apparent &c (external) 220.
Adv. extrinsically &c adj..



7. State — N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim,
mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c (appearance) 448, dilemma,
pass, predicament.
constitution, habitude, diathesis^; frame, fabric &c 329; stamp,
set, fit, mold, mould.
mode, modality, schesis^; form &c (shape) 240.
tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style,
V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state
&c n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass.
Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic.
Adv. conditionally &c adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such
being the case &c 8.


8. Circumstance — N. circumstance, situation, phase, position,
posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing,
occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c (event) 151.
predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass,
push; occurrence; turning point.
bearings, how the land lies.
surroundings, context, environment 232; location 184.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153,
attribution 155.
Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal;
contingent, incidental; adventitious &c (extrinsic) 6; limitative^.
Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c n., the
circumstances, conditions &c 7; thus, in such wise.
accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of
the circumstances; that being so, sith^, since, seeing that.
as matters stand; as things go, as times go.
conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be
so; depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain
conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in
such a contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally,
unless, without.
according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may
happen, as it may turn out, as it may be; as the case may be, as the
wind blows; pro re nata [Lat.].
Phr. yet are my sins not those of circumstance [Lytton].



9. Relation — N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern,
cognation; correlation &c 12; analogy; similarity &c 17; affinity,
homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c
(nearness) 197; filiation &c (consanguinity) 11; interest; relevancy &c
23; dependency, relationship, relative position.
comparison &c 464; ratio, proportion.
link, tie, bond of union.
V. be related &c adj.; have a relation &c n.; relate to, refer to; bear
upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to,
belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest.
bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate,
draw a parallel; link &c 43.
Adj. relative; correlative &c 12; cognate; relating to &c v.; relative
to, in relation with, referable or referrible to^; belonging to &c v.;
appurtenant to, in common with.
related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to;
en rapport, in touch with.
approximative^, approximating; proportional, proportionate,
proportionable; allusive, comparable.
in the same category &c 75; like &c 17; relevant &c (apt) 23;
applicable, equiparant^.
Adv. relatively &c adj.; pertinently &c 23.
thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning
&c v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference
to, with respect to, with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of,
a propos of [Fr.]; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas;
for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of,
on the score of; quoad hoc [Lat.]; pro re nata [Lat.]; under the head
of &c (class) 75, of; in the matter of, in re.
Phr. thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the Shrew].

10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation — N. irrelation^,
dissociation; misrelation^; inapplicability; inconnection^;
multifariousness; disconnection &c (disjunction) 44; inconsequence,
independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c (disagreement)
24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil
ad rem [Lat.]; intrusion &c 24; non-pertinence.
V. have no relation to &c 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with
&c 9, have no business with; not concern &c 9; have no business there,
have nothing to do with, intrude &c 24.
bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in
head and shoulders.
Adj. irrelative^, irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent,
unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular;
extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic.
not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c
irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose;
impertinent, inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes [Fr.];
aside from the purpose, away from the purpose, foreign to the purpose,
beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction, beside
the point; misplaced &c (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record.
remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor
there, quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant^.
multifarious; discordant &c 24.
incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic.
Adv. parenthetically &c adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.],
incidentally; irrespectively &c adj.; without reference to, without
regard to; in the abstract &c 87; a se.

11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity — N. consanguinity,
relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c (paternity) 166; filiation^,
affiliation; lineage, agnation^, connection, alliance; family
connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism.
kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection;
sibling, sib; next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin-
german^; first cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice
removed; &c near relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one’s own
flesh and blood.
family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood^.
race, stock, generation; sept &c 166; stirps, side; strain; breed,
clan, tribe, nation.
V. be related to &c adj.. claim relationship with &c n.. with.
Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied,
collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.
intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely
related, distantly related, allied; german.

12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation — N. reciprocalness
&c adj.^; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation,
interdependence, interrelation, connection, link, association;
interchange &c 148; exchange, barter.
reciprocator, reprocitist.
V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c 148; exchange; counterchange^.
Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual^, correlative, reciprocative,
interrelated, closely related; alternate; interchangeable;
interdependent; international; complemental, complementary.
Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis [Lat.]; vice versa; each other, one
another; by turns &c 148; reciprocally &c adj..
Phr. happy in our mutual help [Milton].

13. Identity — N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence;
convertibility; equality &c 27; selfness^, self, oneself;
monotony, tautology &c (repetition) 104.
facsimile &c (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c (similar) 17;
ipsissima verba &c (exactness) 494 [Lat.]; same; self, very, one and
the same; very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only;
in the flesh.
V. be identical &c adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge.
treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize
the identity of.
Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c n.. selfsame, one and the same,
coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one;
equivalent &c (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; much the
same, of a muchness^; unaltered.
Adv. identically &c adj.; on all fours.

14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety — N. contrariety, contrast, foil,
antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c (opposition)
708; clashing, repugnance.
inversion &c 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the
converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme.
V. be contrary &c adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo
invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for
end, turn upside down, turn inside out.
contradict, contravene; antagonize &c 708.
Adj. contrary, contrarious^, contrariant^; opposite, counter, dead
against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted,
antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent,
contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c 703.
differing toto coelo [Lat.]; diametrically opposite; diametrically
opposed; as opposite as black and white, as opposite as light and
darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as
different as night and day; Hyperion to a satyr [Hamlet]; quite the
contrary, quite the reverse; no such thing, just the other way, tout au
contraire [Fr.].
Adv. contrarily &c adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the
contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c (in
compensation) 30.
Phr. all concord’s born of contraries [B.
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx].

15. Difference — N. difference; variance, variation, variety;
diversity, dissimilarity &c 18; disagreement &c 24; disparity &c
(inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration.
modification, permutation, moods and tenses.
nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle
distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c 465;
different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another
pair of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other.
V. be different &c adj.; differ, vary, ablude^, mismatch, contrast;
divaricate; differ toto coelo [Lat.], differ longo intervallo [It].
vary, modify &c (change) 140.
discriminate &c 465.
Adj. differing &c v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious,
polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified,
various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c 81; daedal^.
other, another, not the same; unequal &c 28.
unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive; characteristic,
discriminative, distinguishing.
incommensurable, incommensurate.
Adv. differently &c adj..
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.


16. Uniformity — N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness;
consistency; connaturality^, connaturalness^; homology; accordance;
conformity &c 82; agreement &c 23; consonance, uniformness.
regularity, constancy, even tenor, routine; monotony.
V. be uniform &c adj.; accord with &c 23; run through.
become uniform &c adj.; conform to &c 82.
render uniform, homogenize &c adj.; assimilate, level, smooth,
Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous; of a piece [Fr.], consistent,
connatural^; monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged,
undeviating, unvaried, unvarying.
Adv. uniformly &c adj.; uniformly with &c (conformably) 82; in harmony
with &c (agreeing) 23.
always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly,
never otherwise; by clockwork.
Phr. ab uno disce omnes [Lat.].

16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity — N. diversity,
irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c 81; unconformity &c 83;
roughness &c 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication,
Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c 256; multifarious;
multiform &c 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all
kinds of.
Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.


17. Similarity — N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude,
semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c 23;
analogy, analogicalness^; correspondence, homoiousia^, parity.
connaturalness^, connaturality^; brotherhood, family likeness.
alliteration, rhyme, pun.
repetition &c 104; sameness &c (identity) 13; uniformity &c 16;
analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate,
twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one’s second self, alter
ego, chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum [Lat.], Arcades ambo^,
birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; gens de meme famille
parallel; simile; type &c (metaphor) 521; image &c
(representation) 554; photograph; close resemblance, striking
resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful
V. be similar &c adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of,
savor of, approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate
&c 19; favor, span [U.S.].
render similar &c adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near;
connaturalize^, make alike; rhyme, pun.
Adj. similar; resembling &c v.; like, alike; twin.
analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece [Fr.]; such as, so;
connatural^, congener, allied to; akin to &c (consanguineous) 11.
approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of,
in the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating,
exact &c (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to
life, the very image, the very picture of; for all the world like,
comme deux gouttes d’eau [Fr.]; as like as two peas in a pod, as like
as it can stare; instar omnium [Lat.], cast in the same mold,
ridiculously like.
Adv. as if, so to speak; as it were, as if it were; quasi, just as,
veluti in speculum [Lat.].
Phr. et sic de similibus [Lat.]; tel maitre tel valet [Fr.]; tel pere
tel fils [Fr.]; like master, like servant; like father, like son; the
fruit doesn’t fall far from the tree; a chip off the old block

18. Dissimilarity — N. dissimilarity, dissimilaritude^; unlikeness,
diversity, disparity, dissemblance^; divergence, variation.; difference
&c 15; novelty, originality; creativeness; oogamy^.
V. be unlike &c adj.; vary &c (differ) 15; bear no resemblance to,
differ toto coelo [Lat.].
render unlike &c adj.; vary &c (diversify) 140.
Adj. dissimilar, unlike, disparate; divergent; of a different kind; &c
(class) 75 unmatched, unique; new, novel; unprecedented &c 83;
nothing of the kind; no such thing, quite another thing; far from
it, cast in a different mold, tertium quid [Lat.], as like a dock as a
daisy, very like a whale [Hamlet]; as different as chalk from cheese,
as different as Macedon and Monmouth; lucus a non lucendo [Lat.].
diversified &c 16.1.
Adv. otherwise.
Phr. diis aliter visum [Lat.]; no more like my father than I to
Hercules [Hamlet].

19. Imitation — N. imitation; copying &c v.; transcription;
repetition, duplication, reduplication; quotation; reproduction;
mimeograph, xerox, facsimile; reprint, offprint.
mockery, mimicry; simulation, impersonation, personation;
representation &c 554; semblance; copy &c 21; assimilation.
paraphrase, parody, take-off, lampoon, caricature &c 21.
plagiarism; forgery, counterfeit &c (falsehood) 544; celluloid.
imitator, echo, cuckoo^, parrot, ape, monkey, mocking bird, mime;
copyist, copycat; plagiarist, pirate.
V. imitate, copy, mirror, reflect, reproduce, repeat; do like, echo,
reecho, catch; transcribe; match, parallel.
mock, take off, mimic, ape, simulate, impersonate, personate; act
&c (drama) 599; represent &c 554; counterfeit, parody, travesty,
caricature, lampoon, burlesque.
follow in the steps of, tread in the steps, follow in the
footsteps of, follow in the wake of; take pattern by; follow suit,
follow the example of; walk in the shoes of, take a leaf out of
another’s book, strike in with, follow suit; take after, model after;
Adj. imitated &c v.; mock, mimic; modelled after, molded on.
paraphrastic; literal; imitative; secondhand; imitable; aping,
apish, mimicking.
Adv. literally, to the letter, verbatim, literatim [Lat.], sic, totidem
verbis [Lat.], word for word, mot a mot [Fr.]; exactly, precisely.
Phr. like master like man; like – but oh! how different! [Wordsworth];
genius borrows nobly [Emerson]; pursuing echoes calling ‘mong the rocks
Coles]; quotation confesses inferiority [Emerson]; Imitation is
the sincerest form of flattery.

20. Nonimitation — N. no imitation; originality; creativeness.
invention, creation.
Adj. unimitated^, uncopied^; unmatched, unparalleled; inimitable &c 13;
unique, original; creative, inventive, untranslated; exceptional, rare,
sui generis uncommon [Lat.], unexampled.

20a. Variation — N. variation; alteration &c (change) 140.
modification, moods and tenses; discrepance^, discrepancy.
divergency &c 291; deviation &c 279; aberration; innovation.
V. vary &c (change) 140; deviate &c 279; diverge &c 291; alternate,
Adj. varied &c v.; modified; diversified &c 16.1.

21. [Result of imitation.] Copy — N. copy, facsimile, counterpart,
effigies, effigy, form, likeness.
image, picture, photo, xerox, similitude, semblance, ectype^, photo
offset, electrotype; imitation &c 19; model, representation,
adumbration, study; portrait &c (representation) 554; resemblance.
duplicate, reproduction; cast, tracing; reflex, reflexion [Brit.],
reflection; shadow, echo.
transcript [copy into a non-visual form], transcription;
recording, scan.
chip off the old block; reprint, new printing; rechauffe [Fr.];
apograph^, fair copy.
parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty, travestie^, paraphrase.
[copy with some differences] derivative, derivation, modification,
expansion, extension, revision; second edition &c (repetition) 104.
servile copy, servile imitation; plagiarism, counterfeit, fake &c
(deception) 545; pasticcio^.
Adj. faithful; lifelike &c (similar) 17; close, conscientious.
unoriginal, imitative, derivative.

22. [Thing copied.] Prototype — N. prototype, original, model,
pattern, precedent, standard, ideal, reference, scantling, type;
archetype, antitype^; protoplast, module, exemplar, example, ensample^,
paradigm; lay-figure.
text, copy, design; fugleman^, keynote.
die, mold; matrix, last, plasm^; proplasm^, protoplasm; mint; seal,
punch, intaglio, negative; stamp.
V. be an example, be a role model, set an example; set a copy.
Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Lat.Tran] [Disraeli]; exempla
sunt odiosa [Lat.].


23. Agreement — N. agreement; accord, accordance; unison, harmony;
concord &c 714; concordance, concert; understanding, mutual
conformity &c 82; conformance; uniformity &c 16; consonance,
consentaneousness^, consistency; congruity, congruence; keeping;
congeniality; correspondence, parallelism, apposition, union.
fitness, aptness &c adj.; relevancy; pertinence, pertinencey^;
sortance^; case in point; aptitude, coaptation^, propriety,
applicability, admissibility, commensurability, compatibility;
cognation &c (relation) 9.
adaption^, adjustment, graduation, accommodation; reconciliation,
reconcilement; assimilation.
consent &c (assent) 488; concurrence &c 178; cooperation &c 709.
right man in the right place, very thing; quite the thing, just
the thing.
V. be accordant &c adj.; agree, accord, harmonize; correspond, tally,
respond; meet, suit, fit, befit, do, adapt itself to; fall in with,
chime in with, square with, quadrate with, consort with, comport with;
dovetail, assimilate; fit like a glove, fit to a tittle, fit to a T;
match &c 17; become one; homologate^.
consent &c (assent) 488.
render accordant &c adj.; fit, suit, adapt, accommodate; graduate;
adjust &c (render equal) 27; dress, regulate, readjust; accord,
harmonize, reconcile; fadge^, dovetail, square.
Adj. agreeing, suiting &c v.; in accord, accordant, concordant,
consonant, congruous, consentaneous^, correspondent, congenial;
coherent; becoming; harmonious reconcilable, conformable; in accordance
with, in harmony with, in keeping with, in unison with, &c n.; at one
with, of one mind, of a piece [Fr.]; consistent, compatible,
proportionate; commensurate; on all fours.
apt, apposite, pertinent, pat; to the point, to the purpose;
happy, felicitous, germane, ad rem [Lat.], in point, on point, directly
on point, bearing upon, applicable, relevant, admissible.
fit adapted, in loco, a propos [Fr.], appropriate, seasonable,
sortable, suitable, idoneous^, deft; meet &c (expedient) 646.
at home, in one’s proper element.
Adv. a propos of [Fr.]; pertinently &c adj..
Phr. rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; if the shoe fits, wear it; the cap fits;
auxilia humilia firma consensus facit [Lat.] [Syrus]; discers concordia
[Lat.] [Ovid].

24. Disagreement — N. disagreement; discord, discordance; dissonance,
dissidence, discrepancy; unconformity &c 83; incongruity, incongruence^;
discongruity^, mesalliance; jarring &c v.; dissension &c 713; conflict
&c (opposition) 708; bickering, clashing, misunderstanding, wrangle.
disparity, mismatch, disproportion; dissimilitude, inequality;
disproportionateness &c adj.^; variance, divergence, repugnance.
unfitness &c adj.; inaptitude, impropriety; inapplicability &c
adj.; inconsistency, inconcinnity^; irrelevancy &c (irrelation) 10.
misjoining^, misjoinder^; syncretism^, intrusion, interference;
concordia discors [Lat.].
fish out of water.
V. disagree; clash, jar &c (discord) 713; interfere, intrude, come
amiss; not concern &c 10; mismatch; humano capiti cervicem jungere
equinam [Lat.].
Adj. disagreeing &c v.; discordant, discrepant; at variance, at war;
hostile, antagonistic, repugnant, incompatible, irreconcilable,
inconsistent with; unconformable, exceptional &c 83; intrusive,
incongruous; disproportionate, disproportionated^; inharmonious,
unharmonious^; inconsonant, unconsonant^; divergent, repugnant to.
inapt, unapt, inappropriate, improper; unsuited, unsuitable;
inapplicable, not to the point; unfit, unfitting, unbefitting;
unbecoming; illtimed, unseasonable, mal a propos [Fr.], inadmissible;
inapposite &c (irrelevant) 10.
uncongenial; ill-assorted, ill-sorted; mismatched, misjoined^,
misplaced, misclassified; unaccommodating, irreducible,
incommensurable, uncommensurable^; unsympathetic.
out of character, out of keeping, out of proportion, out of joint,
out of tune, out of place, out of season, out of its element; at odds
with, at variance with.
Adv. in defiance, in contempt, in spite of; discordantly &c adj.; a
tort et a travers^.
Phr. asinus ad lyram [Lat.].



25. [Absolute quantity.] Quantity — N. quantity, magnitude; size &c
(dimensions) 192; amplitude, magnitude, mass, amount, sum, quantum,
measure, substance, strength, force.
[Science of quantity.] mathematics, mathesis^.
[Logic.] category, general conception, universal predicament.
[Definite or finite quantity.] armful, handful, mouthful,
spoonful, capful; stock, batch, lot, dose; yaffle^.
V. quantify, measure, fix, estimate, determine, quantitate, enumerate.
Adj. quantitative, some, any, aught, more or less, a few.
Adv. to the tune of, all of, a full, the sum of, fully, exactly,

26. [Relative quantity.] Degree — N. degree, grade, extent, measure,
amount, ratio, stint, standard, height, pitch; reach, amplitude, range,
scope, caliber; gradation, shade; tenor, compass; sphere, station,
rank, standing; rate, way, sort.
point, mark, stage &c (term) 71; intensity, strength &c
(greatness) 31.
Adj. comparative; gradual, shading off; within the bounds &c (limit)
Adv. by degrees, gradually, inasmuch, pro tanto [It]; however,
howsoever; step by step, bit by bit, little by little, inch by inch,
drop by drop; a little at a time, by inches, by slow degrees, by
degrees, by little and little; in some degree, in some measure; to some
extent; di grado in grado [Lat.].


27. [Sameness of quantity or degree.] Equality — N. equality, parity,
coextension^, symmetry, balance, poise; evenness, monotony, level.
equivalence; equipollence^, equipoise, equilibrium,
equiponderance^; par, quits, a wash; not a pin to choose; distinction
without a difference, six of one and half a dozen of the other; tweedle
dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; identity &c 13; similarity &c 17.
equalization, equation; equilibration, co-ordination, adjustment,
drawn game, drawn battle; neck and neck race; tie, draw, standoff,
dead heat.
match, peer, compeer, equal, mate, fellow, brother; equivalent.
V. be equal &c adj.; equal, match, reach, keep pace with, run abreast;
come to, amount to, come up to; be on a level with, lie on a level
with; balance; cope with; come to the same thing.
render equal &c adj.; equalize level, dress, balance, equate,
handicap, give points, spot points, handicap, trim, adjust, poise; fit,
accommodate; adapt &c (render accordant) 23; strike a balance;
establish equality, restore equality, restore equilibrium; readjust;
stretch on the bed of Procrustes.
Adj. equal, even, level, monotonous, coequal, symmetrical, coordinate;
on a par with, on a level with, on a footing with; up to the mark;
equivalent, tantamount; indistinguishable; quits; homologous;
synonymous &c 522; resolvable into, convertible, much at one, as broad
as long, neither more nor less.; much the same as, the same thing as,
as good as; all one, all the same; equipollent, equiponderant^,
equiponderous^, equibalanced^; equalized &c v.; drawn; half and half;
isochronal, isochronous isoperimetric^, isoperimetrical^; isobath
[Ocean.], isobathic [Ocean.].
Adv. equally &c adj.; pari passu [Lat.], ad eundum [Lat.], caeteris
paribus [Lat.]; in equilibrio [Lat.]; to all intents and purposes.
Phr. it comes to the same thing, it amounts to the same thing; what is
sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

28. [Difference of quantity or degree.] Inequality — N. inequality;
disparity, imparity; odds; difference &c 15; unevenness; inclination of
the balance, partiality, bias, weight; shortcoming; casting weight,
make-weight; superiority &c 33; inferiority &c 34; inequation^.
V. be unequal &c adj.; countervail; have the advantage, give the
advantage; turn the scale; kick the beam; topple, topple over;
overmatch &c 33; not come up to &c 34.
Adj. unequal, uneven, disparate, partial; unbalanced, overbalanced;
top-heavy, lopsided, biased, skewed; disquiparant^.
Adv. haud passibus aequis [Lat.] [Vergil].

29. Mean — N. mean, average; median, mode; balance, medium,
mediocrity, generality; golden mean &c (mid-course) 628; middle &c 68;
compromise &c 774; middle course, middle state; neutrality.
mediocrity, least common denominator.
V. split the difference; take the average &c n.; reduce to a mean &c
n.; strike a balance, pair off.
Adj. mean, intermediate; middle &c 68; average; neutral.
mediocre, middle-class; commonplace &c (unimportant) 643.
Adv. on an average, in the long run; taking one with another, taking
all things together, taking it for all in all; communibus annis [Lat.],
in round numbers.
Phr. medium tenuere beati [Lat.].

30. Compensation — N. compensation, equation; commutation;
indemnification; compromise; &c 774 neutralization, nullification;
counteraction &c 179; reaction; measure for measure, retaliation, &c
718 equalization; &c 27; robbing Peter to pay Paul.
set-off, offset; make-weight, casting-weight; counterpoise,
ballast; indemnity, equivalent, quid pro quo; bribe, hush money; amends
&c (atonement) 952; counterbalance, counterclaim; cross-debt, cross-
V. make compensation; compensate, compense^; indemnify; counteract,
countervail, counterpoise; balance; outbalance^, overbalance,
counterbalance; set off; hedge, square, give and take; make up for, lee
way; cover, fill up, neutralize, nullify; equalize &c 27; make good;
redeem &c (atone) 952.
Adj. compensating, compensatory; countervailing &c v.; in the opposite
scale; equivalent &c (equal) 27.
Adv. in return, in consideration; but, however, yet, still,
notwithstanding; nevertheless, nathless^, none the less; although,
though; albeit, howbeit; mauger^; at all events, at any rate; be that as
it may, for all that, even so, on the other, hand, at the same time,
quoad minus [Lat.], quand meme [Fr.], however that may be; after all is
said and done; taking one thing with another &c (average) 29.
Phr. light is mingled with the gloom [Whittier]; every dark cloud has a
silver lining; primo avulso non deficit alter [Vergil]; saepe creat
molles aspera spina rosas [Lat.] [Ovid].

31. Greatness — N. greatness &c adj.; magnitude; size &c (dimensions)
192; multitude &c (number) 102; immensity; enormity; infinity &c 105;
might, strength, intensity, fullness; importance &c 642.
great quantity, quantity, deal, power, sight, pot, volume, world;
mass, heap &c (assemblage) 72; stock &c (store) 636; peck, bushel,
load, cargo; cartload^, wagonload, shipload; flood, spring tide;
abundance &c (sufficiency) 639.
principal part, chief part, main part, greater part, major part,
best part, essential part; bulk, mass &c (whole) 50.
V. be great &c adj.; run high, soar, tower, transcend; rise to a great
height, carry to a great height; know no bounds; ascend, mount.
enlarge &c (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. great; greater &c 33; large, considerable, fair, above par; big,
huge &c (large in size) 192; Herculean, cyclopean; ample; abundant; &c
(enough) 639 full, intense, strong, sound, passing, heavy, plenary,
deep, high; signal, at its height, in the zenith.
world-wide, widespread, far-famed, extensive; wholesale; many &c
goodly, noble, precious, mighty; sad, grave, heavy, serious; far
gone, arrant, downright; utter, uttermost; crass, gross, arch,
profound, intense, consummate; rank, uninitiated, red-hot, desperate;
glaring, flagrant, stark staring; thorough-paced, thoroughgoing;
roaring, thumping; extraordinary.; important &c 642; unsurpassed &c
(supreme) 33; complete &c 52.
august, grand, dignified, sublime, majestic &c (repute) 873.
vast, immense, enormous, extreme; inordinate, excessive,
extravagant, exorbitant, outrageous, preposterous, unconscionable,
swinging, monstrous, overgrown; towering, stupendous, prodigious,
astonishing, incredible; marvelous &c 870.
unlimited &c (infinite) 105; unapproachable, unutterable,
indescribable, ineffable, unspeakable, inexpressible, beyond
expression, fabulous.
undiminished, unabated, unreduced^, unrestricted.
absolute, positive, stark, decided, unequivocal, essential,
perfect, finished.
remarkable, of mark, marked, pointed, veriest; noteworthy;
Adv. truly &c (truth) 494 [in a positive degree]; decidedly,
unequivocally, purely, absolutely, seriously, essentially,
fundamentally, radically, downright, in all conscience; for the most
part, in the main.
[in a complete degree] entirely &c (completely) 52; abundantly &c
(sufficiently) 639; widely, far and wide.
[in a great or high degree] greatly &c adj.; much, muckle^, well,
indeed, very, very much, a deal, no end of, most, not a little; pretty,
pretty well; enough, in a great measure, richly; to a large extent, to
a great extent, to a gigantic extent; on a large scale; so; never so,
ever so; ever so dole; scrap, shred, tag, splinter, rag, much; by
wholesale; mighty, powerfully; with a witness, ultra [Lat.], in the
extreme, extremely, exceedingly, intensely, exquisitely, acutely,
indefinitely, immeasurably; beyond compare, beyond comparison, beyond
measure, beyond all bounds; incalculably, infinitely.
[in a supreme degree] preeminently, superlatively &c (superiority)
[in a too great degree] immoderately, monstrously, preposterously,
inordinately, exorbitantly, excessively, enormously, out of all
proportion, with a vengeance.
[in a marked degree] particularly, remarkably, singularly,
curiously, uncommonly, unusually, peculiarly, notably, signally,
strikingly, pointedly, mainly, chiefly; famously, egregiously,
prominently, glaringly, emphatically, kat exochin [Gr.], strangely,
wonderfully, amazingly, surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly,
marvelously, awfully, stupendously.
[in an exceptional degree] peculiarly &c (unconformity) 83.
[in a violent degree] furiously &c (violence) 173; severely,
desperately, tremendously, extravagantly, confoundedly, deucedly,
devilishly, with a vengeance; a outrance^, a toute outrance [Fr.].
[in a painful degree] painfully, sadly, grossly, sorely, bitterly,
piteously, grievously, miserably, cruelly, woefully, lamentably,
shockingly, frightfully, dreadfully, fearfully, terribly, horribly.
Phr. a maximis ad minima [Lat.]; greatness knows itself [Henry IV];
mightiest powers by deepest calms are fed [B.
Cornwall]; minimum decet libere cui multum licet [Lat.] [Seneca];
some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness
thrust upon them [Twelfth Night].

32. Smallness — N. smallness &c adj.; littleness &c (small size) 193;
tenuity; paucity; fewness &c (small number) 103; meanness,
insignificance (unimportance) 643; mediocrity, moderation.
small quantity, modicum, trace, hint, minimum; vanishing point;
material point, atom, particle, molecule, corpuscle, point, speck, dot,
mote, jot, iota, ace; minutiae, details; look, thought, idea, soupcon,
dab, dight^, whit, tittle, shade, shadow; spark, scintilla, gleam;
touch, cast; grain, scruple, granule, globule, minim, sup, sip, sop,
spice, drop, droplet, sprinkling, dash, morceau^, screed, smack, tinge,
tincture; inch, patch, scantling, tatter, cantlet^, flitter, gobbet^,
mite, bit, morsel, crumb, seed, fritter, shive^; snip, snippet; snick^,
snack, snatch, slip, scrag^; chip, chipping; shiver, sliver, driblet,
clipping, paring, shaving, hair.
nutshell; thimbleful, spoonful, handful, capful, mouthful;
fragment; fraction &c (part) 51; drop in the ocean.
animalcule &c 193.
trifle &c (unimportant thing) 643; mere nothing, next to nothing;
hardly anything; just enough to swear by; the shadow of a shade.
finiteness, finite quantity.
V. be small &c adj.; lie in a nutshell.
diminish &c (decrease) 36; (contract) 195.
Adj. small, little; diminutive &c (small in size) 193; minute; fine;
inconsiderable, paltry &c (unimportant) 643; faint &c (weak) 160;
slender, light, slight, scanty, scant, limited; meager &c
(insufficient) 640; sparing; few &c 103; low, so-so, middling,
tolerable, no great shakes; below par, under par, below the mark; at a
low ebb; halfway; moderate, modest; tender, subtle.
inappreciable, evanescent, infinitesimal, homeopathic, very small;
atomic, corpuscular, microscopic, molecular, subatomic.
mere, simple, sheer, stark, bare; near run.
dull, petty, shallow, stolid, ungifted, unintelligent.
Adv. to a small extent [in a small degree], on a small scale; a little
bit, a wee bit; slightly &c adj.; imperceptibly; miserably, wretchedly;
insufficiently &c 640; imperfectly; faintly &c 160; passably, pretty
well, well enough.
[in a certain or limited degree] partially, in part; in a certain
degree, to a certain degree; to a certain extent; comparatively; some,
rather in some degree, in some measure; something, somewhat; simply,
only, purely, merely; at least, at the least, at most, at the most;
ever so little, as little as may be, tant soit peu [Fr.], in ever so
small a degree; thus far, pro tanto [It], within bounds, in a manner,
after a fashion, so to speak.
almost, nearly, well-nigh, short of, not quite, all but; near
upon, close upon; peu s’en faut [Fr.], near the mark; within an ace of,
within an inch of; on the brink of; scarcely, hardly, barely, only
just, no more than.
about [in an uncertain degree], thereabouts, somewhere about,
nearly, say; be the same, be little more or less.
no ways [in no degree], no way, no wise; not at all, not in the
least, not a bit, not a bit of it, not a whit, not a jot, not a shadow;
in no wise, in no respect; by no means, by no manner of means; on no
account, at no hand.
Phr. dare pondus idonea fumo [Lat.] [Persius]; magno conatu magnas
nugas [Lat.] [Terence]; small sands the mountain, moments make the year

33. [Supremacy.] Superiority — N. superiority, majority; greatness &c
31; advantage; pull; preponderance, preponderation; vantage ground,
prevalence, partiality; personal superiority; nobility &c (rank) 875;
Triton among the minnows, primus inter pares [Lat.], nulli secundus
[Lat.], captain; crackajack [U.S.].
supremacy, preeminence; lead; maximum; record; trikumia [Gr.],
climax; culmination &c (summit) 210; transcendence; ne plus ultra
[Lat.]; lion’s share, Benjamin’s mess; excess, surplus &c (remainder)
40; (redundancy) 641.
V. be superior &c adj.; exceed, excel, transcend; outdo, outbalance^,
outweigh, outrank, outrival, out-Herod; pass, surpass, get ahead of;
over-top, override, overpass, overbalance, overweigh, overmatch; top,
o’ertop, cap, beat, cut out; beat hollow; outstrip &c 303; eclipse,
throw into the shade, take the shine out of, outshine, put one’s nose
out of joint; have the upper hand, have the whip hand of, have the
advantage; turn the scale, kick the beam; play first fiddle &c
(importance) 642; preponderate, predominate, prevail; precede, take
precedence, come first; come to a head, culminate; beat all others, &c
bear the palm; break the record; take the cake [U.S.].
become larger, render larger &c (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. superior, greater, major, higher; exceeding &c v.; great &c 31;
distinguished, ultra [Lat.]; vaulting; more than a match for.
supreme, greatest, utmost, paramount, preeminent, foremost,
crowning; first-rate &c (important) 642, (excellent) 648; unrivaled
peerless, matchless; none such, second to none, sans pareil [Fr.];
unparagoned^, unparalleled, unequalled, unapproached^, unsurpassed;
superlative, inimitable facile princeps [Lat.], incomparable,
sovereign, without parallel, nulli secundus [Lat.], ne plus ultra
[Lat.]; beyond compare, beyond comparison; culminating &c (topmost)
210; transcendent, transcendental; plus royaliste que le Roi [Fr.],
more catholic than the Pope increased &c (added to) 35; enlarged &c
(expanded) 194.
Adv. beyond, more, over; over the mark, above the mark; above par;
upwards of, in advance of; over and above; at the top of the scale, at
its height.
[in a superior or supreme degree] eminently, egregiously,
preeminently, surpassing, prominently, superlatively, supremely, above
all, of all things, the most, to crown all, kat exochin [Gr.], par
excellence, principally, especially, particularly, peculiarly, a
fortiori, even, yea, still more.
Phr. I shall not look upon his like again [Hamlet]; deos fortioribus
addesse [Lat.] [Tacitus].

34. Inferiority — N. inferiority, minority, subordinacy; shortcoming,
deficiency; minimum; smallness &c 32; imperfection; lower quality,
lower worth.
[personal inferiority] commonalty &c 876.
V. be inferior &c adj.; fall short of, come short of; not pass, not
come up to; want.
become smaller, render smaller &c (decrease) 36, (contract) 195;
hide its diminished head, retire into the shade, yield the palm, play
second fiddle, be upstaged, take a back seat.
Adj. inferior, smaller; small &c 32; minor, less, lesser, deficient,
minus, lower, subordinate, secondary; secondrate &c (imperfect) 651;
sub, subaltern; thrown into the shade; weighed in the balance and found
wanting; not fit to hold a candle to, can’t hold a candle to.
least, smallest &c (little) (small) &c 193; lowest.
diminished &c (decreased) 36; reduced &c (contracted) 195;
unimportant &c 643.
Adv. less; under the mark, below the mark, below par; at the bottom of
the scale, at a low ebb, at a disadvantage; short of, under.

35. Increase — N. increase, augmentation, enlargement, extension;
dilatation &c (expansion) 194; increment, accretion; accession &c 37;
development, growth; aggrandizement, aggravation; rise; ascent &c 305;
exaggeration exacerbation; spread &c (dispersion) 73; flood tide; gain,
produce, product, profit.
V. increase, augment, add to, enlarge; dilate &c (expand) 194; grow,
wax, get ahead.
gain strength; advance; run up, shoot up; rise; ascend &c 305;
sprout &c 194.
aggrandize; raise, exalt; deepen, heighten; strengthen; intensify,
enhance, magnify, redouble; aggravate, exaggerate; exasperate,
exacerbate; add fuel to the flame, oleum addere camino [Lat.], superadd
&c (add) 37; spread &c (disperse) 73.
Adj. increased &c v.; on the increase, undiminished; additional &c
(added) 37.
Adv. crescendo.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat.] [Vergil].

36. Nonincrease, Decrease — N. decrease, diminution; lessening &c v.;
subtraction &c 38; reduction, abatement, declension; shrinking &c
(contraction.) 195; coarctation^; abridgment &c (shortening) 201;
subsidence, wane, ebb, decline; ebbing; descent &c 306; decrement,
reflux, depreciation; deterioration &c 659; anticlimax; mitigation &c
(moderation) 174.
V. decrease, diminish, lessen; abridge &c (shorten) 201; shrink &c
(contract) 195; drop off, fall off, tail off; fall away, waste, wear;
wane, ebb, decline; descend &c 306; subside; melt away, die away;
retire into the shade, hide its diminished head, fall to a low ebb, run
low, languish, decay, crumble.
bate, abate, dequantitate^; discount; depreciate; extenuate, lower,
weaken, attenuate, fritter away; mitigate &c (moderate) 174; dwarf,
throw into the shade; reduce &c 195; shorten &c 201; subtract &c 38.
Adj. unincreased^ &c 35; decreased &c v.; decreasing &c v.; on the wane
&c n..
Phr. a gilded halo hovering round decay [Byron]; fine by degrees and
beautifully less [Prior].


37. Addition — N. addition, annexation, adjection^; junction &c 43;
superposition, superaddition, superjunction^, superfetation; accession,
reinforcement; increase &c 35; increment, supplement; accompaniment &c
88; interposition &c 228; insertion &c 300.
V. add, annex, affix, superadd^, subjoin, superpose; clap on, saddle on;
tack to, append, tag; ingraft^; saddle with; sprinkle; introduce &c
(interpose) 228; insert &c 300.
become added, accrue; advene^, supervene.
reinforce, reenforce, restrengthen^; swell the ranks of; augment &c
Adj. added &c v.; additional; supplemental, supplementary; suppletory^,
subjunctive; adjectitious^, adscititious^, ascititious^; additive, extra,
Adv. au reste [Fr.], in addition, more, plus, extra; and, also,
likewise, too, furthermore, further, item; and also, and eke; else,
besides, to boot, et cetera; &c; and so on, and so forth; into the
bargain, cum multis aliis [Lat.], over and above, moreover.
with, withal; including, inclusive, as well as, not to mention,
let alone; together with, along with, coupled with, in conjunction
with; conjointly; jointly &c 43.
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit [Lat.].

38. Nonaddition. Subtraction — N. subtraction, subduction^; deduction,
retrenchment; removal, withdrawal; ablation, sublation^; abstraction &c
(taking) 789; garbling, &c v.. mutilation, detruncation^; amputation;
abscission, excision, recision; curtailment &c 201; minuend,
subtrahend; decrease &c 36; abrasion.
V. subduct, subtract; deduct, deduce; bate, retrench; remove, withdraw,
take from, take away; detract.
garble, mutilate, amputate, detruncate^; cut off, cut away, cut
out; abscind^, excise; pare, thin, prune, decimate; abrade, scrape,
file; geld, castrate; eliminate.
diminish &c 36; curtail &c (shorten) 201; deprive of &c (take)
789; weaken.
Adj. subtracted &c v.; subtractive.
Adv. in deduction &c n.; less; short of; minus, without, except, except
for, excepting, with the exception of, barring, save, exclusive of,
save and except, with a reservation; not counting, if one doesn’t

39. [Thing added] Adjunct — N. adjunct; addition, additament^; additum
[Lat.], affix, appelidage^, annexe^, annex; augment, augmentation;
increment, reinforcement, supernumerary, accessory, item; garnish,
sauce; accompaniment &c 88; adjective, addendum; complement,
supplement; continuation.
rider, offshoot, episode, side issue, corollary; piece [Fr.];
flap, lappet, skirt, embroidery, trappings, cortege; tail, suffix &c
(sequel) 65; wing.
Adj. additional &c 37.
alate^, alated^; winged.
Adv. in addition &c 37.

40. [Thing remaining.] Remainder — N. remainder, residue; remains,
remanent, remnant, rest, relic; leavings, heeltap^, odds and ends,
cheesepairings^, candle ends, orts^; residuum; dregs &c (dirt) 653;
refuse &c (useless) 645; stubble, result, educt^; fag-end; ruins, wreck,
skeleton., stump; alluvium.
surplus, overplus^, excess; balance, complement; superplus^,
surplusage^; superfluity &c (redundancy) 641; survival, survivance^.
V. remain; be left &c adj.; exceed, survive; leave.
Adj. remaining, left; left behind left over; residual, residuary; over,
odd; unconsumed, sedimentary; surviving; net; exceeding, over and
above; outlying, outstanding; cast off &c 782; superfluous &c
(redundant) 641.

40a. [Thing deducted.] Decrement — N. decrement, discount, defect,
loss, deduction; afterglow; eduction^; waste.

41. [Forming a whole without coherence.] Mixture — N. mixture,
admixture, commixture, commixtion^; commixion^, intermixture, alloyage^,
matrimony; junction &c 43; combination &c 48; miscegenation.
impregnation; infusion, diffusion suffusion, transfusion;
infiltration; seasoning, sprinkling, interlarding; interpolation; &c
228 adulteration, sophistication.
[Thing mixed] tinge, tincture, touch, dash, smack, sprinkling,
spice, seasoning, infusion, soupcon.
[Compound resulting from mixture] alloy, amalgam; brass, chowchow^,
pewter; magma, half-and-half, melange, tertium quid [Lat.], miscellany,
ambigu^, medley, mess, hotchpot^, pasticcio^, patchwork, odds and ends,
all sorts; jumble &c (disorder) 59; salad, sauce, mash, omnium gatherum
[Lat.], gallimaufry, olla-podrida^, olio, salmagundi, potpourri, Noah’s
ark, caldron texture, mingled yarn; mosaic &c (variegation) 440.
half-blood, half-caste.
mulatto; terceron^, quarteron^, quinteron^ &c; quadroon, octoroon;
griffo^, zambo^; cafuzo^; Eurasian; fustee^, fustie^; griffe, ladino^,
marabou, mestee^, mestizo, quintroon, sacatra zebrule [Lat.]; catalo^;
cross, hybrid, mongrel.
V. mix; join &c 43; combine &c 48; commix, immix^, intermix; mix up
with, mingle; commingle, intermingle, bemingle^; shuffle &c (derange)
61; pound together; hash up, stir up; knead, brew; impregnate with;
interlard &c (interpolate) 228; intertwine, interweave &c 219;
associate with; miscegenate^.
be mixed &c; get among, be entangled with.
instill, imbue; infuse, suffuse, transfuse; infiltrate, dash,
tinge, tincture, season, sprinkle, besprinkle, attemper^, medicate,
blend, cross; alloy, amalgamate, compound, adulterate, sophisticate,
Adj. mixed &c v.; implex^, composite, half-and-half, linsey-woolsey,
chowchow, hybrid, mongrel, heterogeneous; motley &c (variegated) 440;
miscellaneous, promiscuous, indiscriminate; miscible.
Adv. among, amongst, amid, amidst; with; in the midst of, in the crowd.

42. [Freedom from mixture.] Simpleness — N. simpleness &c adj.;
purity, homogeneity.
elimination; sifting &c v.; purification &c (cleanness) 652.
V. render simple &c adj.; simplify.
sift, winnow, bolt, eliminate; exclude, get rid of; clear; purify
&c (clean) 652; disentangle &c (disjoin) 44.
Adj. simple, uniform, of a piece [Fr.], homogeneous, single, pure,
sheer, neat.
unmixed, unmingled^, unblended, uncombined, uncompounded;
elementary, undecomposed; unadulterated, unsophisticated, unalloyed,
untinged^, unfortified, pur et simple [Fr.]; incomplex^.
free from, exempt from; exclusive.
Adv. simple &c adj.. only.

43. Junction — N. junction; joining &c v.; joinder [Law], union
connection, conjunction, conjugation; annexion^, annexation, annexment^;
astriction^, attachment, compagination^, vincture^, ligation,
alligation^; accouplement^; marriage &c (wedlock,) 903; infibulation^,
inosculation^, symphysis [Anat.], anastomosis, confluence,
communication, concatenation; meeting, reunion; assemblage &c 72.
coition, copulation; sex, sexual congress, sexual conjunction,
sexual intercourse, love-making.
joint, joining, juncture, pivot, hinge, articulation, commissure^,
seam, gore, gusset, suture, stitch; link &c 45; miter mortise.
closeness, tightness, &c adj.; coherence &c 46; combination &c 48.
V. join, unite; conjoin, connect; associate; put together, lay
together, clap together, hang together, lump together, hold together,
piece together [Fr.], tack together, fix together, bind up together
together; embody, reembody^; roll into one.
attach, fix, affix, saddle on, fasten, bind, secure, clinch,
twist, make fast &c adj.; tie, pinion, string, strap, sew, lace, tat,
stitch, tack, knit, button, buckle, hitch, lash, truss, bandage, braid,
splice, swathe, gird, tether, moor, picket, harness, chain; fetter &c
(restrain) 751; lock, latch, belay, brace, hook, grapple, leash,
couple, accouple^, link, yoke, bracket; marry &c (wed) 903; bridge over,
braze; pin, nail, bolt, hasp, clasp, clamp, crimp, screw, rivet;
impact, solder, set; weld together, fuse together; wedge, rabbet,
mortise, miter, jam, dovetail, enchase^; graft, ingraft^, inosculate^;
entwine, intwine^; interlink, interlace, intertwine, intertwist^,
interweave; entangle; twine round, belay; tighten; trice up, screw up.
be joined &c; hang together, hold together; cohere &c 46.
Adj. joined &c v.; joint; conjoint, conjunct; corporate, compact; hand
in hand.
firm, fast, close, tight, taut, taught, secure, set, intervolved^;
inseparable, indissoluble, insecable^, severable.
Adv. jointly &c adj.; in conjunction with &c (in addition to) 37; fast,
firmly, &c adj.; intimately.
Phr. tria juncta in uno [Lat.].

44. Disjunction — N. disjunction, disconnection, disunity, disunion,
disassociation, disengagement; discontinuity &c 70; abjunction^;
cataclasm^; inconnection^; abstraction, abstractedness; isolation;
insularity, insulation; oasis; island; separateness &c adj.; severalty;
disjecta membra [Lat.]; dispersion &c 73; apportionment &c 786.
separation; parting &c v.; circumcision; detachment, segregation;
divorce, sejunction^, seposition^, diduction^, diremption^, discerption^;
elision; caesura, break, fracture, division, subdivision, rupture;
compartition^; dismemberment, dislocation; luxation^; severance,
disseverance; scission; rescission, abscission; laceration,
dilaceration^; disruption, abruption^; avulsion^, divulsion^; section,
resection, cleavage; fission; partibility^, separability.
fissure, breach, rent, split, rift, crack, slit, incision.
dissection anatomy; decomposition &c 49; cutting instrument &c
(sharpness) 253; buzzsaw, circular saw, rip saw.
V. be disjoined &c; come off, fall off, come to pieces, fall to pieces;
peel off; get loose.
disjoin, disconnect, disengage, disunite, dissociate, dispair^;
divorce, part, dispart^, detach, separate, cut off, rescind, segregate;
set apart, keep apart; insulate, isolate; throw out of gear; cut
adrift; loose; unloose, undo, unbind, unchain, unlock &c (fix) 43,
unpack, unravel; disentangle; set free &c (liberate) 750.
sunder, divide, subdivide, sever, dissever, abscind^; circumcise;
cut; incide^, incise; saw, snip, nib, nip, cleave, rive, rend, slit,
split, splinter, chip, crack, snap, break, tear, burst; rend &c, rend
asunder, rend in twain; wrench, rupture, shatter, shiver, cranch^,
crunch, craunch^, chop; cut up, rip up; hack, hew, slash; whittle;
haggle, hackle, discind^, lacerate, scamble^, mangle, gash, hash, slice.
cut up, carve, dissect, anatomize; dislimb^; take to pieces, pull
to pieces, pick to pieces, tear to pieces; tear to tatters, tear
piecemeal, tear limb from limb; divellicate^; skin &c 226; disintegrate,
dismember, disbranch^, disband; disperse &c 73; dislocate, disjoint;
break up; mince; comminute &c (pulverize) 330; apportion &c 786.
part, part company; separate, leave.
Adj. disjoined &c v.; discontinuous &c 70; multipartite^, abstract;
disjunctive; secant; isolated &c v.; insular, separate, disparate,
discrete, apart, asunder, far between, loose, free; unattached,
unannexed, unassociated, unconnected; distinct; adrift; straggling;
rift, reft^.
[capable of being cut] scissile [Chem], divisible, discerptible^,
partible, separable.
Adv. separately &c adj.; one by one, severally, apart; adrift, asunder,
in twain; in the abstract, abstractedly.

45. [Connecting medium.] Connection — N. vinculum, link; connective,
connection; junction &c 43; bond of union, copula, hyphen, intermedium^;
bracket; bridge, stepping-stone, isthmus.
bond, tendon, tendril; fiber; cord, cordage; riband, ribbon, rope,
guy, cable, line, halser^, hawser, painter, moorings, wire, chain;
string &c (filament) 205.
fastener, fastening, tie; ligament, ligature; strap; tackle,
rigging; standing rigging, running rigging; traces, harness; yoke; band
ribband, bandage; brace, roller, fillet; inkle^; with, withe, withy;
thong, braid; girder, tiebeam; girth, girdle, cestus^, garter, halter,
noose, lasso, surcingle, knot, running knot; cabestro [U.S.], cinch
[U.S.], lariat, legadero^, oxreim^; suspenders.
pin, corking pin, nail, brad, tack, skewer, staple, corrugated
fastener; clamp, U-clamp, C-clamp; cramp, cramp iron; ratchet, detent,
larigo^, pawl; terret^, treenail, screw, button, buckle; clasp, hasp,
hinge, hank, catch, latch, bolt, latchet^, tag; tooth; hook, hook and
eye; lock, holdfast^, padlock, rivet; anchor, grappling iron, trennel^,
stake, post.
cement, glue, gum, paste, size, wafer, solder, lute, putty,
birdlime, mortar, stucco, plaster, grout; viscum^.
shackle, rein &c (means of restraint) 752; prop &c (support) 215.
V. bridge over, span; connect &c 43; hang &c 214.

46. Coherence — N. coherence, adherence, adhesion, adhesiveness;
concretion accretion; conglutination, agglutination, agglomeration;
aggregation; consolidation, set, cementation; sticking, soldering &c
v.; connection; dependence.
tenacity, toughness; stickiness &c 352; inseparability,
inseparableness; bur, remora.
conglomerate, concrete &c (density) 321.
V. cohere, adhere, stick, cling, cleave, hold, take hold of, hold fast,
close with, clasp, hug; grow together, hang together; twine round &c
(join) 43.
stick like a leech, stick like wax; stick close; cling like ivy,
cling like a bur; adhere like a remora, adhere like Dejanira’s shirt.
glue; agglutinate, conglutinate^; cement, lute, paste, gum; solder,
weld; cake, consolidate &c (solidify) 321; agglomerate.
Adj. cohesive, adhesive, adhering, cohering &c v.; tenacious, tough;
sticky &c 352.
united, unseparated, unsessile^, inseparable, inextricable,
infrangible^; compact &c (dense) 321.

47. [Want of adhesion, nonadhesion, immiscibility.] Incoherence — N.
nonadhesion^; immiscibility; incoherence; looseness &c adj.; laxity;
relaxation; loosening &c v.; freedom; disjunction &c 44; rope of sand.
V. make loose &c adj.; loosen, slacken, relax; unglue &c 46; detach &c
(disjoin) 44.
Adj. nonadhesive, immiscible; incoherent, detached, loose, baggy,
slack, lax, relaxed, flapping, streaming; disheveled; segregated, like
grains of sand unconsolidated &c 231, uncombined &c 48; noncohesive^.

48. Combination — N. combination; mixture &c 41; junction &c 43;
union, unification, synthesis, incorporation, amalgamation, embodiment,
coalescence, crasis^, fusion, blending, absorption, centralization.
alloy, compound, amalgam, composition, tertium quid [Lat.];
resultant, impregnation.
V. combine, unite, incorporate, amalgamate, embody, absorb, reembody^,
blend, merge, fuse, melt into one, consolidate, coalesce, centralize,
impregnate; put together, lump together; cement a union, marry.
Adj. combined &c v.; impregnated with, ingrained; imbued inoculated.

49. Decomposition — N. decomposition, analysis, dissection,
resolution, catalysis, dissolution; corruption &c (uncleanness) 653;
dispersion &c 73; disjunction &c 44; disintegration.
V. decompose, decompound; analyze, disembody, dissolve; resolve into
its elements, separate into its elements; electrolyze [Chem]; dissect,
decentralize, break up; disperse &c 73; unravel &c (unroll) 313;
crumble into dust.
Adj. decomposed &c v.; catalytic, analytical; resolvent, separative,


50. [Principal part.] Whole — N. whole, totality, integrity; totalness
&c adj.^; entirety, ensemble, collectiveness^; unity &c 87; completeness
&c 52; indivisibility, indiscerptibility^; integration, embodiment;
all, the whole, total, aggregate, one and all, gross amount, sum,
sum total, tout ensemble, length and breadth of, Alpha and Omega, be
all and end all; complex, complexus^; lock stock and barrel.
bulk, mass, lump, tissue, staple, body, compages^; trunk, torso,
bole, hull, hulk, skeleton greater part, major part, best part,
principal part, main part; essential part &c (importance) 642; lion’s
share, Benjamin’s mess; the long and the short; nearly, all, almost
V. form a whole, constitute a whole; integrate, embody, amass;
aggregate &c (assemble) 72; amount to, come to.
Adj. whole, total, integral, entire; complete &c 52; one, individual.
unbroken, intact, uncut, undivided, unsevered^, unclipped^,
uncropped, unshorn; seamless; undiminished; undemolished, undissolved,
undestroyed, unbruised.
indivisible, indissoluble, indissolvable^, indiscerptible^.
wholesale, sweeping; comprehensive.
Adv. wholly, altogether; totally &c (completely) 52; entirely, all, all
in all, as a whole, wholesale, in a body, collectively, all put
together; in the aggregate, in the lump, in the mass, in the gross, in
the main, in the long run; en masse, as a body, on the whole, bodily^,
en bloc, in extenso [Lat.], throughout, every inch; substantially.
Phr. tout bien ou rien [Fr.].

51. Part — N. part, portion; dose; item, particular; aught, any;
division, ward; subdivision, section; chapter, clause, count,
paragraph, verse; article, passage; sector, segment; fraction,
fragment; cantle, frustum; detachment, parcel.
piece [Fr.], lump, bit cut, cutting; chip, chunk, collop^, slice,
scale; lamina &c 204; small part; morsel, particle &c (smallness) 32;
installment, dividend; share &c (allotment) 786.
debris, odds and ends, oddments, detritus; excerpta^; member, limb,
lobe, lobule, arm, wing, scion, branch, bough, joint, link, offshoot,
ramification, twig, bush, spray, sprig; runner; leaf, leaflet; stump;
component part &c 56; sarmentum^.
compartment; department &c (class) 75; county &c (region) 181.
V. part, divide, break &c (disjoin) 44; partition &c (apportion) 786.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary; sectional, aliquot; divided &c v.; in
compartments, multifid^; disconnected; partial.
Adv. partly, in part, partially; piecemeal, part by part; by by
installments, by snatches, by inches, by driblets; bit by bit, inch by
inch, foot by foot, drop by drop; in detail, in lots.

52. Completeness — N. completeness &c adj.; completion &c 729;
integration; allness^.
entirety; perfection &c 650; solidity, solidarity; unity; all; ne
plus ultra [Lat.], ideal, limit.
complement, supplement, make-weight; filling, up &c v.. impletion^;
saturation, saturity^; high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide;
fill, load, bumper, bellyful^; brimmer^; sufficiency &c 639.
V. be complete &c adj.; come to a head.
render complete &c adj.; complete &c (accomplish) 729; fill,
charge, load, replenish; make up, make good; piece out [Fr.], eke out;
supply deficiencies; fill up, fill in, fill to the brim, fill the
measure of; saturate.
go the whole hog, go the whole length; go all lengths.
Adj. complete, entire; whole &c 50; perfect &c 650; full, good,
absolute, thorough, plenary; solid, undivided; with all its parts; all-
exhaustive, radical, sweeping, thorough-going; dead.
regular, consummate, unmitigated, sheer, unqualified,
unconditional, free; abundant &c (sufficient) 639.
brimming; brimful, topful, topfull; chock full, choke full; as
full as an egg is of meat, as full as a vetch; saturated, crammed;
replete &c (redundant) 641; fraught, laden; full-laden, full-fraught,
full-charged; heavy laden.
completing &c v.; supplemental, supplementary; ascititious^.
Adv. completely &c adj.; altogether, outright, wholly, totally, in
toto, quite; all out; over head and ears; effectually, for good and
all, nicely, fully, through thick and thin, head and shoulders; neck
and heel, neck and crop; in all respects, in every respect; at all
points, out and out, to all intents and purposes; toto coelo [Lat.];
utterly; clean, clean as a whistle; to the full, to the utmost, to the
backbone; hollow, stark; heart and soul, root and branch, down to the
to the top of one’s bent, as far as possible, a outrance^.
throughout; from first to last, from beginning to end, from end to
end, from one end to the other, from Dan to Beersheba, from head to
foot, from top to toe, from top to bottom, de fond en comble [Fr.]; a
fond, a capite ad calcem [Lat.], ab ovo usque ad mala [Lat.], fore and
aft; every, whit, every inch; cap-a-pie, to the end of the chapter; up
to the brim, up to the ears, up to the eyes; as a as can be.
on all accounts; sous tous les rapports [Fr.]; with a vengeance,
with a witness.
Phr. falsus in uno falsus in omnibus [Lat.], false in one thing, false
in everything; omnem movere lapidem [Lat.]; una scopa nuova spazza bene

53. Incompleteness — N. incompleteness &c adj.; deficiency, short
measure; shortcoming &c 304; insufficiency &c 640; imperfection &c 651;
immaturity &c (nonpreparation) 674; half measures.
[part wanting] defect, deficit, defalcation, omission; caret;
shortage; interval &c 198; break &c (discontinuity) 70; noncompletion
&c 730; missing link.
missing piece, missing part, gap, hole, lacuna.
V. be incomplete &c adj.; fall short of &c 304; lack &c (be
insufficient) 640; neglect &c 460.
Adj. incomplete; imperfect &c 651; unfinished; uncompleted &c
(complete) &c 729; defective, deficient, wanting, lacking, failing; in
default, in arrear^; short of; hollow, meager, lame, halfand-half,
perfunctory, sketchy; crude &c (unprepared) 674.
mutilated, garbled, docked, lopped, truncated.
in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding.
Adv. incompletely &c adj.; by halves.
Phr. caetera desunt [Lat.]; caret.

54. Composition — N. composition, constitution, crasis^; combination &c
48; inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception; embodiment;
V. be composed of, be made of, be formed of, be made up of; consist of,
be resolved into.
include &c (in a class) 76; contain, hold, comprehend, take in,
admit, embrace, embody; involve, implicate; drag into.
compose, constitute, form, make; make up, fill up, build up; enter
into the composition of &c (be a component) 56.
Adj. containing, constituting &c v..

55. Exclusion — N. exclusion, nonadmission, omission, exception,
rejection, repudiation; exile &c (seclusion) 893; noninclusion^,
preclusion, prohibition.
separation, segregation, seposition^, elimination, expulsion;
V. be excluded from &c; exclude, bar; leave out, shut out, bar out;
reject, repudiate, blackball; lay apart, put apart, set apart, lay
aside, put aside; relegate, segregate; throw overboard; strike off,
strike out; neglect &c 460; banish &c (seclude) 893; separate &c
(disjoin) 44.
pass over, omit; garble; eliminate, weed, winnow.
Adj. excluding &c v.; exclusive.
excluded &c v.; unrecounted^, not included in; inadmissible.
Adv. exclusive of, barring; except; with the exception of; save;

56. Component — N. component; component part, integral part, integrant
part^; element, constituent, ingredient, leaven; part and parcel;
contents; appurtenance; feature; member &c (part) 51; personnel.
V. enter into, enter into the composition of; be a component &c n. be
part of, form part of &c 51; merge in, be merged in; be implicated in;
share in &c (participate) 778; belong to, appertain to; combine, inhere
in, unite.
form, make, constitute, compose.
Adj. forming &c v.. inclusive.

57. Extraneousness — N. extraneousness &c adj.; extrinsicality &c 6;
exteriority &c 220; alienage^, alienism.
foreign body, foreign substance, foreign element; alien, stranger,
intruder, interloper, foreigner, novus homo [Lat.], newcomer,
immigrant, emigrant; creole, Africander^; outsider; Dago [Slang], wop,
mick, polak, greaser, slant, Easterner [U.S.], Dutchman, tenderfoot.
Adj. extraneous, foreign, alien, ulterior; tramontane, ultramontane.
excluded &c 55; inadmissible; exceptional.
Adv. in foreign parts, in foreign lands; abroad, beyond seas; over sea
on one’s travels.



58. Order — N. order, regularity, uniformity, symmetry, lucidus ordo
[Lat.]; music of the spheres.
gradation, progression; series &c (continuity) 69.
subordination; course, even tenor, routine; method, disposition,
arrangement, array, system, economy, discipline orderliness &c adj..
rank, place &c (term) 71.
V. be in order, become in order &c adj.; form, fall in, draw up;
arrange itself, range itself, place itself; fall into one’s place, take
one’s place, take one’s rank; rally round.
adjust, methodize, regulate, systematize.
Adj. orderly, regular; in order, in trim, in apple-pie order, in its
proper place; neat, tidy, en regle [Fr.], well regulated, correct,
methodical, uniform, symmetrical, shipshape, businesslike, systematic;
unconfused &c (confuse) &c 61; arranged &c 60.
Adv. in order; methodically &c adj.; in turn, in its turn; by steps,
step by step; by regular steps, by regular gradations, by regular
stages, by regular intervals; seriatim, systematically, by clockwork,
gradatim [Lat.]; at stated periods &c (periodically) 138.
Phr. natura non facit saltum [Lat.]; order is heaven’s first law
[Pope]; order from disorder sprung [Paradise Lost]; ordo est parium
dispariumque rerum sua loca tribuens dispositio [Lat.] [St.

59. [Absence, or want of Order, &c] Disorder — N. disorder;
derangement &c 61; irregularity; anomaly &c (unconformity) 83; anarchy,
anarchism; want of method; untidiness &c adj.; disunion; discord &c 24.
confusion; confusedness &c adj.; mishmash, mix; disarray, jumble,
huddle, litter, lumber; cahotage^; farrago; mess, mash, muddle, muss
[U.S.], hash, hodgepodge; hotch-potch^, hotch-pot^; imbroglio, chaos,
omnium gatherum [Lat.], medley; mere mixture &c 41; fortuitous
concourse of atoms, disjecta membra [Lat.], rudis indigestaque moles
[Lat.] [Ovid].
complexity &c 59.1.
turmoil; ferment &c (agitation) 315; to-do, trouble, pudder^,
pother, row, rumble, disturbance, hubbub, convulsion, tumult, uproar,
revolution, riot, rumpus, stour^, scramble, brawl, fracas, rhubarb,
fight, free-for-all, row, ruction, rumpus, embroilment, melee, spill
and pelt, rough and tumble; whirlwind &c 349; bear garden, Babel,
Saturnalia, donnybrook, Donnybrook Fair, confusion worse confounded,
most admired disorder, concordia discors [Lat.]; Bedlam, all hell broke
loose; bull in a china shop; all the fat in the fire, diable a’ quatre
[Fr.], Devil to pay; pretty kettle of fish; pretty piece of work [Fr.],
pretty piece of business [Fr.].
[legal terms] disorderly person; disorderly persons offence;
[moral disorder] slattern, slut (libertine) 962.
V. be disorderly &c adj.; ferment, play at cross-purposes.
put out of order; derange &c 61; ravel &c 219; ruffle, rumple.
Adj. disorderly, orderless; out of order, out of place, out of gear;
irregular, desultory; anomalous &c (unconformable) 83; acephalous^,
deranged; aimless; disorganized; straggling; unmethodical,
immethodical^; unsymmetric^, unsystematic; untidy, slovenly; dislocated;
out of sorts; promiscuous, indiscriminate; chaotic, anarchical;
unarranged &c (arrange) &c 60; confused; deranged &c 61; topsy-turvy &c
(inverted) 218; shapeless &c 241; disjointed, out of joint.
troublous^; riotous &c (violent) 173.
complex &c 59.1.
Adv. irregularly &c adj.; by fits, by fits and snatches, by fits and
starts; pellmell; higgledy-piggledy; helter-skelter, harum-scarum; in a
ferment; at sixes and sevens, at cross-purposes; upside down &c 218.
Phr. the cart before the horse; hysteron proteron [Gr.]; chaos is come
again; the wreck of matter and the crush of worlds [Addison].

59a. Complexity — N. complexity; complexness &c adj.; complexus^;
complication, implication; intricacy, intrication^; perplexity; network,
labyrinth; wilderness, jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil
&c (convolution) 248; sleave^, tangled skein, knot, Gordian knot, wheels
within wheels; kink, gnarl, knarl^; webwork^.
[complexity if a task or action] difficulty &c 704.
V. complexify^, complicate.
Adj. gnarled, knarled^.
complex, complexed; intricate, complicated, perplexed, involved,
raveled, entangled, knotted, tangled, inextricable; irreducible.

60. [Reduction to Order.] Arrangement — N. arrangement; plan &c 626;
preparation &c 673; disposal, disposition; collocation, allocation;
distribution; sorting &c v.; assortment, allotment, apportionment,
taxis, taxonomy, syntaxis^, graduation, organization; grouping;
analysis, classification, clustering, division, digestion.
[Result of arrangement] digest; synopsis &c (compendium) 596;
syntagma [Gramm.], table, atlas; file, database; register.
&c (record) 551; organism, architecture.
[Instrument for sorting] sieve, riddle, screen, sorter.
V. reduce to order, bring into order; introduce order into; rally.
arrange, dispose, place, form; put in order, set in order, place
in order; set out, collocate, pack, marshal, range, size, rank, group,
parcel out, allot, distribute, deal; cast the parts, assign the parts;
dispose of, assign places to; assort, sort; sift, riddle; put to
rights, set to rights, put into shape, put in trim, put in array;
class, classify; divide; file, string together, thread; register
&c (record) 551; catalogue, tabulate, index, graduate, digest, grade.
methodize, regulate, systematize, coordinate, organize, settle,
unravel, disentangle, ravel, card; disembroil^; feaze^.
Adj. arranged &c v.; embattled, in battle array; cut and dried;
methodical, orderly, regular, systematic.
Phr. In vast cumbrous array [Churchill].

61. [Subversion of Order; bringing into disorder.] Derangement — N.
derangement &c v.; disorder &c 59; evection^, discomposure, disturbance;
disorganization, deorganization^; dislocation; perturbation,
interruption; shuffling &c v.; inversion &c 218; corrugation &c (fold)
258; involvement.
interchange &c 148.
V. derange; disarrange, misarrange^; displace, misplace; mislay,
discompose, disorder; deorganize^, discombobulate, disorganize; embroil,
unsettle, disturb, confuse, trouble, perturb, jumble, tumble; shuffle,
randomize; huddle, muddle, toss, hustle, fumble, riot; bring into
disorder, put into disorder, throw into disorder &c 59; muss [U.S.];
break the ranks, disconcert, convulse; break in upon.
unhinge, dislocate, put out of joint, throw out of gear.
turn topsy-turvy &c (invert) 218; bedevil; complicate, involve,
perplex, confound; imbrangle^, embrangle^, tangle, entangle, ravel,
tousle, towzle^, dishevel, ruffle; rumple &c (fold) 258.
litter, scatter; mix &c 41.
rearrange &c 148.
Adj. deranged &c v.; syncretic, syncretistic^; mussy, messy; flaky;
random, unordered [U.S.].


62. Precedence — N. precedence; coming before &c v.; the lead, le pas;
superiority &c 33; importance &c 642; antecedence, antecedency^;
anteriority &c (front) 234; precursor &c 64; priority &c 116;
precession &c 280; anteposition^; epacme^; preference.
V. precede; come before, come first; head, lead, take the lead; lead
the way, lead the dance; be in the vanguard; introduce, usher in; have
the pas; set the fashion &c (influence) 175; open the ball; take
precedence, have precedence; have the start &c (get before) 280.
place before; prefix; premise, prelude, preface.
Adj. preceding &c v.; precedent, antecedent; anterior; prior &c 116;
before; former; foregoing; beforementioned^, abovementioned^,
aforementioned; aforesaid, said; precursory, precursive^; prevenient^,
preliminary, prefatory, introductory; prelusive, prelusory; proemial^,
Adv. before; in advance &c (precession) 280.
Phr. seniores priores [Lat.]; prior tempore prior jure [Lat.].

63. Sequence — N. sequence, coming after; going after &c (following)
281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c 117.
continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme^.
secondariness^; subordinancy &c (inferiority) 34.
afterbirth, afterburden^; placenta, secundines [Med.].
V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into
the shoes of; alternate.
place after, suffix, append.
Adj. succeeding &c; v.; sequent^; subsequent, consequent, sequacious^,
proximate, next; consecutive &c (continuity) 69; alternate, amoebean^.
latter; posterior &c 117.
Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c (rear) 235.

64. Precursor — N. precursor, antecedent, precedent, predecessor;
forerunner, vancourier^, avant-coureur [Fr.], pioneer, prodrome^,
prodromos^, prodromus^, outrider; leader, bellwether; herald, harbinger;
foreboding; dawn; avant-courier, avant-garde, bellmare^, forelooper^,
foreloper^, stalking-horse, voorlooper [Afrik.], voortrekker [Afrik.].
prelude, preamble, preface, prologue, foreword, avant-propos
[Fr.], protasis^, proemium^, prolusion^, proem, prolepsis [Gramm.],
prolegomena, prefix, introduction; heading, frontispiece, groundwork;
preparation &c 673; overture, exordium [Lat.], symphony; premises.
prefigurement &c 511; omen &c 512.
Adj. precursory; prelusive, prelusory, preludious^; proemial^,
introductory, prefatory, prodromous^, inaugural, preliminary; precedent
&c (prior) 116.
Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Disraeli].

65. Sequel — N. sequel, suffix, successor; tail, queue, train, wake,
trail, rear; retinue, suite; appendix, postscript; epilogue;
peroration; codicil; continuation, sequela^; appendage; tail piece
[Fr.], heelpiece^; tag, more last words; colophon.
aftercome^, aftergrowth^, afterpart^, afterpiece^, aftercourse^,
afterthought, aftergame^; arriere pensee [Fr.], second thoughts;

66. Beginning — N. beginning, commencement, opening, outset,
incipience, inception, inchoation^; introduction &c (precursor) 64;
alpha, initial; inauguration, debut, le premier pas, embarcation [Fr.],
rising of the curtain; maiden speech; outbreak, onset, brunt;
initiative, move, first move; narrow end of the wedge, thin end of the
wedge; fresh start, new departure.
origin &c (cause) 153; source, rise; bud, germ &c 153; egg,
rudiment; genesis, primogenesis^, birth, nativity, cradle, infancy;
start, inception, creation, starting point &c 293; dawn &c (morning)
125; evolution.
title-page; head, heading; van &c (front) 234; caption, fatihah^.
entrance, entry; inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch,
portal, portico, propylon^, door; gate, gateway; postern, wicket,
threshold, vestibule; propylaeum^; skirts, border &c (edge) 231.
first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first
rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABC.
V. begin, start, commence; conceive, open, dawn, set in, take its rise,
enter upon, enter; set out &c (depart) 293; embark in; incept^.
initiate, launch, inaugurate.
inchoate, rise, arise, originate.
usher in; lead off, lead the way; take the lead, take the
initiative; head; stand at the head, stand first, stand for; lay the
foundations &c (prepare) 673; found &c (cause) 153; set up, set on
foot, agoing^, set abroach^, set the ball in motion; apply the match to
a train; broach; open up, open the door to.
get underway, set about, get to work, set to work, set to; make a
beginning, make a start.
handsel; take the first step, lay the first stone, cut the first
turf; break ground, break the ice, break cover; pass the Rubicon, cross
the Rubicon; open fire, open the ball; ventilate, air; undertake &c
come into existence, come into the world; make one’s debut, take
birth; burst forth, break out; spring up, spring forth, crop up, pop
up, appear, materialize.
begin at the beginning, begin ab ovo [Lat.].
begin again, begin de novo; start afresh, make a fresh start, take
it from the top, shuffle the cards, reshuffle the cards, resume,
Adj. beginning &c v.; initial, initiatory, initiative; inceptive,
introductory, incipient; proemial^, inaugural; inchoate, inchoative^;
embryonic, rudimental; primogenial^; primeval, primitive, primordial &c
(old) 124; aboriginal; natal, nascent.
first, foremost, leading; maiden.
begun &c v.; just begun &c v..
Adv. at the beginning, in the beginning, &c n.; first, in the first
place, imprimis [Lat.], first and foremost; in limine [Lat.]; in the
bud, in embryo, in its infancy; from the beginning, from its birth; ab
initio [Lat.], ab ovo [Lat.], ab incunabilis [Lat.], ab origine [Lat.].
Phr. let’s get going!, let’s get this show on the road!, up and at
’em!; aller Anfang ist schwer [G.], dimidium facti qui coepit habet
[Lat.] [Cicero]; omnium rerum principia parva sunt [Lat.] [Cicero].

67. End — N. end, close, termination; desinence^, conclusion, finis,
finale, period, term, terminus, endpoint, last, omega; extreme,
extremity; gable end, butt end, fag-end; tip, nib, point; tail &c
(rear) 235; verge &c (edge) 231; tag, peroration; bonne bouche [Fr.];
bottom dollar, tail end, rear guard.
consummation, denouement; finish &c (completion) 729; fate; doom,
doomsday; crack of doom, day of Judgment, dies irae, fall of the
curtain; goal, destination; limit, determination; expiration, expiry^,
extinction, extermination; death &c 360; end of all things; finality;
break up, commencement de la fin, last stage, turning point; coup
de grace, deathblow; knock-out-blow; sockdolager [U.S.].
V. end, close, finish, terminate, conclude, be all over; expire; die &c
360; come-, draw-to-a-close &c n.; have run its course; run out, pass
bring to an end &c n.; put an end to, make an end of; determine;
get through; achieve &c (complete) 729; stop &c (make to cease) 142;
shut up shop; hang up one’s fiddle.
Adj. ending &c v.; final, terminal, definitive; crowning &c
(completing) 729; last, ultimate; hindermost^; rear &c 235; caudal;
conterminate^, conterminous, conterminable^.
ended &c v.; at an end; settled, decided, over, played out, set at
rest; conclusive.
penultimate; last but one, last but two, &c unbegun, uncommenced^;
Adv. finally &c adj.; in fine; at the last; once for all.
Phr. as high as Heaven and as deep as hell [Beaumont and Fletcher];
deficit omne quod nascitur [Lat.] [Quintilian]; en toute chose il faut
considerer la fin [Fr.]; finem respice [Lat.]; ultimus Romanorum

68. Middle — N. middle, midst, mediety^, mean &c 29; medium, middle
term; center &c 222, mid-course &c 628; mezzo termine [It]; juste
milieu &c 628 [Fr.]; halfway house, nave, navel, omphalos^; nucleus,
equidistance^, bisection, half distance; equator, diaphragm,
midriff; intermediate &c 228.
Adj. middle, medial, mesial [Med.], mean, mid, median, average;
middlemost, midmost; mediate; intermediate &c (interjacent) 228;
equidistant; central &c 222; mediterranean, equatorial; homocentric.
Adv. in the middle; midway, halfway; midships^, amidships, in medias

69. [Uninterrupted sequence.] Continuity — N. continuity; consecution,
consecutiveness &c adj.; succession, round, suite, progression, series,
train chain; catenation, concatenation; scale; gradation, course;
ceaselessness, constant flow, unbroken extent.
procession, column; retinue, cortege, cavalcade, rank and file,
line of battle, array.
pedigree, genealogy, lineage, race; ancestry, descent, family,
house; line, line of ancestors; strain.
rank, file, line, row, range, tier, string, thread, team; suit;
V. follow in a series, form a series &c n.; fall in.
arrange in a series, collate &c n.; string together, file, thread,
graduate, organize, sort, tabulate.
Adj. continuous, continued; consecutive; progressive, gradual; serial,
successive; immediate, unbroken, entire; linear; in a line, in a row &c
n.; uninterrupted, unintermitting^; unremitting, unrelenting
(perseverence) 604.1; perennial, evergreen; constant.
Adv. continuously &c adj.; seriatim; in a line &c n.; in succession, in
turn; running, gradually, step by step, gradatim [Lat.], at a stretch;
in file, in column, in single file, in Indian file.

70. [Interrupted sequence.] Discontinuity — N. discontinuity;
disjunction &c 44; anacoluthon^; interruption, break, fracture, flaw,
fault, crack, cut; gap &c (interval) 198; solution of continuity,
caesura; broken thread; parenthesis, episode, rhapsody, patchwork;
intermission; alternation &c (periodicity) 138; dropping fire.
V. be discontinuous &c adj.; alternate, intermit, sputter, stop and
start, hesitate.
discontinue, pause, interrupt; intervene; break, break in upon,
break off; interpose &c 228; break the thread, snap the thread;
disconnect &c (disjoin) 44; dissever.
Adj. discontinuous, unsuccessive^, broken, interrupted, dicousu [Fr.];
disconnected, unconnected; discrete, disjunctive; fitful &c (irregular)
139; spasmodic, desultory; intermitting, occasional &c v.,
intermittent; alternate; recurrent &c (periodic) 138.
Adv. at intervals; by snatches, by jerks, by skips, by catches, by fits
and starts; skippingly^, per saltum [Lat.]; longo intervallo [It].
Phr. like ‘angel visits few and far between’ [Campbell].

71. Term — N. term, rank, station, stage, step; degree &c 26; scale,
remove, grade, link, peg, round of the ladder, status, position, place,
point, mark, pas, period, pitch; stand, standing; footing, range.
V. hold a place, occupy a place, find a place, fall into a place &c n..


72. Assemblage — N. {opp.
73} assemblage; collection, collocation, colligation^; compilation,
levy, gathering, ingathering, muster, attroupement^; team; concourse,
conflux^, congregation, contesseration^, convergence &c 290; meeting,
levee, reunion, drawing room, at home; conversazione [It] &c (social
gathering) 892; assembly, congress; convention, conventicle; gemote^;
conclave &c (council) 696; posse, posse comitatus [Lat.]; Noah’s ark.
miscellany, collectanea^; museum, menagerie &c (store) 636;
crowd, throng, group; flood, rush, deluge; rabble, mob, press,
crush, cohue^, horde, body, tribe; crew, gang, knot, squad, band, party;
swarm, shoal, school, covey, flock, herd, drove; atajo^; bunch, drive,
force, mulada [U.S.]; remuda^; roundup [U.S.]; array, bevy, galaxy;
corps, company, troop, troupe, task force; army, regiment &c
(combatants) 726; host &c (multitude) 102; populousness.
clan, brotherhood, fraternity, sorority, association &c (party)
volley, shower, storm, cloud.
group, cluster, Pleiades, clump, pencil; set, batch, lot, pack;
budget, assortment, bunch; parcel; packet, package; bundle, fascine^,
fasces^, bale; seron^, seroon^; fagot, wisp, truss, tuft; shock, rick,
fardel^, stack, sheaf, haycock^; fascicle, fascicule^, fasciculus [Lat.],
gavel, hattock^, stook^.
accumulation &c (store) 636; congeries, heap, lump, pile, rouleau^,
tissue, mass, pyramid; bing^; drift; snowball, snowdrift; acervation^,
cumulation; glomeration^, agglomeration; conglobation^; conglomeration,
conglomerate; coacervate [Chem], coacervation [Chem], coagmentation^,
aggregation, concentration, congestion, omnium gaterum [Lat.],
spicilegium^, black hole of Calcutta; quantity &c (greatness) 31.
collector, gatherer; whip, whipper in.
V. assemble [be or come together], collect, muster; meet, unite, join,
rejoin; cluster, flock, swarm, surge, stream, herd, crowd, throng,
associate; congregate, conglomerate, concentrate; precipitate; center
round, rendezvous, resort; come together, flock get together, pig
together; forgather; huddle; reassemble.
[get or bring together] assemble, muster; bring together, get
together, put together, draw together, scrape together, lump together;
collect, collocate, colligate^; get, whip in; gather; hold a meeting;
convene, convoke, convocate^; rake up, dredge; heap, mass, pile; pack,
put up, truss, cram; acervate^; agglomerate, aggregate; compile; group,
aggroup^, concentrate, unite; collect into a focus, bring into a focus;
amass, accumulate &c (store) 636; collect in a dragnet; heap Ossa upon
Adj. assembled &c v.; closely packed, dense, serried, crowded to
suffocation, teeming, swarming, populous; as thick as hops; all of a
heap, fasciculated cumulative.
Phr. the plot thickens; acervatim [Lat.]; tibi seris tibi metis [Lat.].

73. Nonassemblage. Dispersion — N. {opp.
72} dispersion; disjunction &c 44; divergence &c 291; aspersion;
scattering &c v.; dissemination, diffusion, dissipation, distribution;
apportionment &c 786; spread, respersion^, circumfusion^, interspersion,
spargefaction^; affusion^.
waifs and estrays^, flotsam and jetsam, disjecta membra [Lat.],
[Horace]; waveson^.
V. disperse, scatter, sow, broadcast, disseminate, diffuse, shed,
spread, bestrew, overspread, dispense, disband, disembody, dismember,
distribute; apportion &c 786; blow off, let out, dispel, cast forth,
draught off; strew, straw, strow^; ted; spirtle^, cast, sprinkle; issue,
deal out, retail, utter; resperse^, intersperse; set abroach^,
turn adrift, cast adrift; scatter to the winds; spread like
wildfire, disperse themselves.
Adj. unassembled &c (assemble) &c 72; dispersed &c v.; sparse,
dispread, broadcast, sporadic, widespread; epidemic &c (general) 78;
adrift, stray; disheveled, streaming.
Adv. sparsim^, here and there, passim.

74. [Place of meeting.] Focus — N. focus; point of convergence &c 290;
corradiation^; center &c 222; gathering place, resort haunt retreat;
venue; rendezvous; rallying point, headquarters, home, club; depot &c
(store) 636; trysting place; place of meeting, place of resort, place
of assignation; point de reunion; issue.
V. bring to a point, bring to a focus, bring to an issue.


75. Class — N. class, division, category, categorema^, head, order,
section; department, subdepartment, province, domain.
kind, sort, genus, species, variety, family, order, kingdom, race,
tribe, caste, sept, clan, breed, type, subtype, kit, sect, set, subset;
assortment; feather, kidney; suit; range; gender, sex, kin.
manner, description, denomination, designation, rubric, character,
stamp predicament; indication, particularization, selection,
similarity &c 17.

76. [Comprehension under, or reference to a class.] Inclusion — N.
77} inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception.
composition &c (inclusion in a compound) 54.
V. be included in &c; come under, fall under, range under; belong to,
pertain to; range with; merge in.
include, comprise, comprehend, contain, admit, embrace, receive;
inclose &c (circumscribe) 229; embody, encircle.
reckon among, enumerate among, number among; refer to; place with,
arrange with, place under; take into account.
Adj. included, including &c v.; inclusive; congener, congenerous; of
the same class &c 75; encircling.
Phr. a maximis ad minima [Lat.], et hoc genus omne [Lat.], &c etc.; et
coetera [Lat.].

77. Exclusion — N. {opp.
76} exclusion &c 55.

78. Generality — N. {opp.
79} generality, generalization; universality; catholicity,
catholicism; miscellany, miscellaneousness^; dragnet; common run;
everyone, everybody; all hands, all the world and his wife;
anybody, N or M, all sorts.
prevalence, run.
V. be general &c adj.; prevail, be going about, stalk abroad.
render general &c adj.; generalize.
Adj. general, generic, collective; broad, comprehensive, sweeping;
encyclopedical^, widespread &c (dispersed) 73.
universal; catholic, catholical^; common, worldwide; ecumenical,
oecumenical^; transcendental; prevalent, prevailing, rife, epidemic,
besetting; all over, covered with.
Pan-American, Anglican^, Pan-Hellenic, Pan-Germanic, slavic;
every, all; unspecified, impersonal.
customary &c (habitual) 613.
Adv. whatever, whatsoever; to a man, one and all.
generally &c adj.; always, for better for worse; in general,
generally speaking; speaking generally; for the most part; in the long
run &c (on an average) 29.

79. Speciality — N. {opp.
78} speciality, specialite^; individuality, individuity^;
particularity, peculiarity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176; personality,
characteristic, mannerism, idiosyncrasy; specificness &c adj.^;
singularity &c (unconformity) 83; reading, version, lection; state;
trait; distinctive feature; technicality; differentia.
particulars, details, items, counts; minutiae.
I, self, I myself; myself, himself, herself, itself.
V. specify, particularize, individualize, realize, specialize,
designate, determine; denote, indicate, point out, select.
descend to particulars, enter into detail, go into detail, come to
the point.
Adj. special, particular, individual, specific, proper, personal,
original, private, respective, definite, determinate, especial,
certain, esoteric, endemic, partial, party, peculiar, appropriate,
several, characteristic, diagnostic, exclusive; singular &c
(exceptional) 83; idiomatic; idiotypical; typical.
this, that; yon, yonder.
Adv. specially, especially, particularly &c adj.; in particular, in
propria persona [Lat.]; ad hominem [Lat.]; for my part.
each, apiece, one by one, one at a time; severally, respectively,
each to each; seriatim, in detail, in great detail, in excruciating
detail, in mind-numbing detail; bit by bit; pro hac vice [Lat.], pro re
nata [Lat.].
namely, that is to say, for example, id est, exemplia gratia
[Lat.], e.g., i.e., videlicet, viz.; to wit.
Phr. le style est l’homme meme [Fr.].


80. Normality — N. normality, normalcy, normalness^; familiarity,
naturalness; commonness (frequency) 136; rule, standard (conformity)
82; customary (habit) 613; standard, pattern (prototype) 22.
V. normalize, standardize.
Adj. normal, natural, unexceptional; common, usual (frequency) 136;

81. Multiformity — N. multiformity, omniformity^; variety, diversity;
multifariousness &c adj.; varied assortment.
dissimilarity &c 18.
Adj. polymorphous, multiform, multifold, multifarious, multigenerous^,
multiplex; heterogeneous, diversified, dissimilar, various, varied,
variform^; manifold, many-sided; variegated, motley, mosaic; epicene,
indiscriminate, desultory, irregular; mixed, different, assorted,
mingled, odd, diverse, divers; all manner of; of every description, of
all sorts and kinds; et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; and what not? de omnibus
rebus et quibusdam aliis [Lat.].
jumbled, confused, mixed up, discordant; inharmonious, unmatched,
unrelated, nonuniform.
omniform^, omnigenous^, omnifarious^; protean (form) 240.
Phr. harmoniously confused [Pope]; variety’s the very spice of life

82. Conformity — N. {opp.
83} conformity, conformance; observance; habituation.
naturalization; conventionality &c (custom) 613; agreement &c 23.
example, instance, specimen, sample, quotation; exemplification,
illustration, case in point; object lesson; elucidation.
standard, model, pattern &c (prototype) 22.
rule, nature, principle; law; order of things; normal state,
natural state, ordinary state, model state, normal condition, natural
condition, ordinary condition, model condition; standing dish, standing
order; Procrustean law; law of the Medes and Persians; hard and fast
V. conform to, conform to rule; accommodate oneself to, adapt oneself
to; rub off corners.
be regular &c adj.; move in a groove; follow observe the rules, go
by the rules, bend to the rules, obey the rules, obey the precedents;
comply with, tally with, chime in with, fall in with; be guided by, be
regulated by; fall into a custom, fall into a usage; follow the
fashion, follow the crowd, follow the multitude; pass muster, do as
others do, hurler avec les loups [Fr.]; stand on ceremony; when in Rome
do as the Romans do; go with the stream, go with the flow, swim with
the stream, swim with the current, swim with the tide, blow with the
wind; stick to the beaten track &c (habit) 613; keep one in
exemplify, illustrate, cite, quote, quote precedent, quote
authority, appeal to authority, put a case; produce an instance &c n.;
elucidate, explain.
Adj. conformable to rule; regular &c 136; according to regulation,
according to rule, according to Hoyle, according to Cocker, according
to Gunter; en regle [Fr.], selon les regles [Fr.], well regulated,
orderly; symmetric &c 242.
conventional &c (customary) 613; of daily occurrence, of everyday
occurrence; in the natural order of things; ordinary, common, habitual,
usual, everyday, workaday.
in the order of the day; naturalized.
typical, normal, nominal, formal; canonical, orthodox, sound,
strict, rigid, positive, uncompromising, Procrustean.
secundum artem [Lat.], shipshape, technical.
exempIe [Fr.].
illustrative, in point.
Adv. conformably &c adj.; by rule; agreeably to; in conformity with, in
accordance with, in keeping with; according to; consistently with; as
usual, ad instar [Lat.], instar omnium [Lat.]; more solito [Lat.],
for the sake of conformity; as a matter of course, of course; pro
forma [Lat.], for form’s sake, by the card.
invariably, &c (uniformly) 16.
for example, exempli gratia [Lat.], e.g.; inter alia [Lat.], among
other things; for instance.
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.]; ex pede Herculem [Lat.]; noscitur a
sociis [Lat.]; ne e quovis ligno Mercurius fiat [Lat.] [Erasmus]; they
are happy men whose natures sort with their vocations [Bacon].
The nail that sticks up hammered down [Jap.Tr.]; Tall poppy
syndrome; Stick your neck out and it may get cut off.

83. Unconformity — N. {opp.
82} nonconformity &c 82; unconformity, disconformity;
unconventionality, informality, abnormity^, abnormality, anomaly;
anomalousness &c adj.^; exception, peculiarity; infraction of law,
breach, of law, violation of law, violation of custom, violation of
usage, infringement of law, infringement of custom, infringement of
usage; teratism^, eccentricity, bizarrerie^, oddity, je ne sais quoi
[Fr.], monster, monstrosity, rarity; freak, freak of Nature, weirdo,
mutant; rouser, snorter [U.S.].
individuality, idiosyncrasy, originality, mannerism.
aberration; irregularity; variety; singularity; exemption; salvo
&c (qualification) 469.
nonconformist; nondescript, character, original, nonesuch,
nonsuch^, monster, prodigy, wonder, miracle, curiosity, flying fish,
black sheep, black swan, lusus naturae [Lat.], rara avis [Lat.], queer
fish; mongrel, random breed; half-caste, half-blood, half-breed; metis
[Lat.], crossbreed, hybrid, mule, hinny, mulatto; tertium quid [Lat.],
[Mythical animals] phoenix, chimera, hydra, sphinx, minotaur;
griffin, griffon; centaur; saggittary^; kraken, cockatrice, wyvern, roc,
dragon, sea serpent; mermaid, merman, merfolk^; unicorn; Cyclops, men
whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders [Othello]; teratology.
[unconformable to the surroundings] fish out of water; neither one
thing nor another, neither fish nor fowl, neither fish flesh nor fowl
nor good red herring; one in a million, one in a way, one in a
thousand; outcast, outlaw; off the beaten track; oasis.
V. be uncomformable &c adj.; abnormalize^; leave the beaten track, leave
the beaten path; infringe a law, infringe a habit, infringe a usage,
infringe a custom, break a law, break a habit, break a usage, break a
custom, violate a law, violate a habit, violate a usage, violate a
custom; drive a coach and six through; stretch a point; have no
business there; baffle all description, beggar all description.
Adj. uncomformable, exceptional; abnormal, abnormous^; anomalous,
anomalistic; out of order, out of place, out of keeping, out of tune,
out of one’s element; irregular, arbitrary; teratogenic; lawless,
informal, aberrant, stray, wandering, wanton; peculiar, exclusive,
unnatural, eccentric, egregious; out of the beaten track, off the
beaten track, out of the common, out of the common run; beyond the pale
of, out of the pale of; misplaced; funny.
unusual, unaccustomed, uncustomary, unwonted, uncommon; rare,
curious, odd, extraordinary, out of the ordinary; strange, monstrous;
wonderful &c 870; unexpected, unaccountable; outre [Fr.], out of the
way, remarkable, noteworthy; queer, quaint, nondescript, none such, sui
generis [Lat.]; unfashionable; fantastic, grotesque, bizarre;
outlandish, exotic, tombe des nues [Fr.], preternatural; denaturalized^.
heterogeneous, heteroclite [Gramm.], amorphous, mongrel,
amphibious, epicene, half blood, hybrid; androgynous, androgynal^;
asymmetric &c 243; adelomorphous^, bisexual, hermaphrodite,
qualified &c 469.
singular, unique, one-of-a-kind.
newfangled, novel, non-classical; original, unconventional,
unheard of, unfamiliar; undescribed, unprecedented, unparalleled,
Adv. unconformably &c adj.; except, unless, save barring, beside,
without, save and except, let alone.
however, yet, but.
once in a blue moon, once in a million years.
Int. what on earth!, what in the world!, What the devil!, Holy cow!,
Can you top that?; Sacre bleu [Fr.].
Phr. never was seen the like, never was heard the like, never was known
the like.
I could hardly believe it; I saw it, but I didn’t believe it.



84. Number — N. number, symbol, numeral, figure, cipher, digit,
integer; counter; round number; formula; function; series.
sum, difference, complement, subtrahend; product; multiplicand,
multiplier, multiplicator^; coefficient, multiple; dividend, divisor,
factor, quotient, submultiple [Math.]; fraction, rational number; surd,
irrational number; transcendental number; mixed number, complex number,
complex conjugate; numerator, denominator; decimal, circulating
decimal, repetend; common measure, aliquot part; prime number, prime,
relative prime, prime factor, prime pair; reciprocal; totient^.
binary number, octal number, hexadecimal number [Comp.].
permutation, combination, variation; election.
ratio, proportion, comparison &c 464; progression; arithmetical
progression, geometrical progression, harmonical progression^;
percentage, permilage.
figurate numbers^, pyramidal numbers, polygonal numbers.
power, root, exponent, index, logarithm, antilogarithm; modulus,
differential, integral, fluxion^, fluent.
Adj. numeral, complementary, divisible, aliquot, reciprocal, prime,
relatively prime, fractional, decimal, figurate^, incommensurable.
proportional, exponential, logarithmic, logometric^, differential,
fluxional^, integral, totitive^.
positive, negative; rational, irrational; surd, radical, real;
complex, imaginary; finite; infinite; impossible.
Adv. numerically; modulo.

85. Numeration — N. numeration; numbering &c v.; pagination; tale,
recension^, enumeration, summation, reckoning, computation,
supputation^; calculation, calculus; algorithm, algorism^, rhabdology^,
dactylonomy^; measurement &c 466; statistics.
arithmetic, analysis, algebra, geometry, analytical geometry,
fluxions^; differential calculus, integral calculus, infinitesimal
calculus; calculus of differences.
[Statistics] dead reckoning, muster, poll, census, capitation,
roll call, recapitulation; account &c (list) 86.
[Operations] notation,, addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, rule of three, practice, equations, extraction of roots,
reduction, involution, evolution, estimation, approximation,
interpolation, differentiation, integration.
[Instruments] abacus, logometer^, slide rule, slipstick [Coll.],
tallies, Napier’s bones, calculating machine, difference engine, suan-
pan^; adding machine; cash register; electronic calculator, calculator,
computer; [people who calculate] arithmetician, calculator, abacist^,
algebraist, mathematician; statistician, geometer; programmer;
accountant, auditor.
V. number, count, tally, tell; call over, run over; take an account of,
enumerate, muster, poll, recite, recapitulate; sum; sum up, cast up;
tell off, score, cipher, compute, calculate, suppute^, add, subtract,
multiply, divide, extract roots.
check, prove, demonstrate, balance, audit, overhaul, take stock;
affix numbers to, page.
amount to, add up to, come to.
Adj. numeral, numerical; arithmetical, analytic, algebraic,
statistical, numerable, computable, calculable; commensurable,
commensurate; incommensurable, incommensurate, innumerable,
unfathomable, infinite.
Adv. quantitatively; arithmetically; measurably; in numbers.

86. List — N. list, catalog, catalogue, inventory; register &c
(record) 551.
account; bill, bill of costs; terrier; tally, listing,
itemization; atlas; book, ledger; catalogue raisonne [Fr.]; tableau;
invoice, bill of lading; prospectus; bill of fare, menu, carte [Fr.];
score, census, statistics, returns.
[list of topics in a document] contents, table of contents,
outline; synopsis.
[written list used as an aid to memory] checklist.
table, chart, database; index, inverted file, word list,
dictionary, lexicon; vocabulary, glossary; thesaurus.
file, card index, card file, rolodex, address book.
Red book, Blue book, Domesday book; cadastre [Fr.]; directory,
almanac; army list, clergy list, civil service list, navy list;
Almanach de Gotha^, cadaster; Lloyd’s register, nautical almanac; who’s
who; Guiness’s Book of World Records.
roll; check roll, checker roll, bead roll; muster roll, muster
book; roster, panel, jury list; cartulary, diptych.
V. list, itemize; sort, collate; enumerate, tabulate, catalog, tally.
Adj. cadastral^.


87. Unity — N. unity; oneness &c adj.; individuality; solitude &c
(seclusion) 893; isolation &c (disjunction) 44; unification &c 48.
one, unit, ace; individual; none else, no other.
V. be one, be alone &c adj.; dine with Duke Humphrey^.
isolate &c (disjoin) 44.
render one; unite &c (join) 43, (combine) 48.
Adj. one, sole, single, solitary, unitary; individual, apart, alone;
unaccompanied, unattended; solus [Lat.], single-handed; singular,
odd, unique, unrepeated^, azygous, first and last; isolated &c
(disjoined) 44; insular.
monospermous^; unific^, uniflorous^, unifoliate^, unigenital^,
uniliteral^, unijocular^, unimodal [Math.], unimodular^.
lone, lonely, lonesome; desolate, dreary.
insecable^, inseverable^, indiscerptible^; compact, indivisible,
atomic, irresolvable^.
Adv. singly &c adj.; alone, by itself, per se, only, apart, in the
singular number, in the abstract; one by one, one at a time; simply;
one and a half, sesqui-^.
Phr. natura il fece [It], e poi roppe la stampa [It]; du fort au faible
[Fr.]; two souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as

88. Accompaniment — N. accompaniment; adjunct &c 39; context;
appendage, appurtenance.
coexistence, concomitance, company, association, companionship;
partnership, copartnership; coefficiency^.
concomitant, accessory, coefficient; companion, buddy, attendant,
fellow, associate, friend, colleague; consort, spouse, mate; partner,
co-partner; satellite, hanger on, fellow-traveller, shadow; escort,
cortege; attribute.
V. accompany, coexist, attend; hang on, wait on; go hand in hand with;
synchronize &c 120; bear company, keep company; row in the same boat;
bring in its train; associate with, couple with.
Adj. accompanying &c v.; concomitant, fellow, twin, joint; associated
with, coupled with; accessory, attendant, obbligato.
Adv. with, withal; together with, along with, in company with; hand in
hand, side by side; cheek by jowl, cheek by jole^; arm in arm;
therewith, herewith; and &c (addition) 37.
together, in a body, collectively.
Phr. noscitur a sociis [Lat.]; virtutis fortuna comes [Lat.].

89. Duality — N. duality, dualism; duplicity; biplicity^, biformity^;
two, deuce, couple, duet, brace, pair, cheeks, twins, Castor and
Pollux, gemini, Siamese twins; fellows; yoke, conjugation; dispermy^,
doublets, dyad, span.
V. pair [unite in pairs], couple, bracket, yoke; conduplicate^; mate,
span [U.S.].
Adj. two, twin; dual, dualistic, double; binary, binomial; twin,
biparous^; dyadic [Math.]; conduplicate^; duplex &c 90; biduous^,
binate^, diphyletic^, dispermic^, unijugate^; tete-a-tete.
coupled &c v.; conjugate.
both, both the one and the other.

90. Duplication — N. duplication; doubling &c v.; gemination,
ingemination^; reduplication; iteration &c (repetition) 104; renewal.
V. double, redouble, duplicate, reduplicate; geminate; repeat &c 104;
renew &c 660.
Adj. double; doubled &c v.; bicipital^, bicephalous^, bidental^,
bilabiate, bivalve, bivalvular^, bifold^, biform^, bilateral; bifarious^,
bifacial^; twofold, two-sided; disomatous^; duplex; double-faced,
double-headed; twin, duplicate, ingeminate^; second.
Adv. twice, once more; over again &c (repeatedly) 104; as much again,
secondly, in the second place, again.

91. [Division into two parts.] bisection — N. bisection, bipartition;
dichotomy, subdichotomy^; halving &c v.; dimidiation^.
bifurcation, forking, branching, ramification, divarication; fork,
prong; fold.
half, moiety.
V. bisect, halve, divide, split, cut in two, cleave dimidiate^,
go halves, divide with.
separate, fork, bifurcate; branch off, out; ramify.
Adj. bisected &c v.; cloven, cleft; bipartite, biconjugate^, bicuspid,
bifid; bifurcous^, bifurcate, bifurcated; distichous, dichotomous,
furcular^; semi-, demi-, hemi^.

92. Triality — N. Triality^, trinity; triunity^.
three, triad, triplet, trey, trio, ternion^, leash; shamrock,
tierce^, spike-team [U.S.], trefoil; triangle, trident, triennium^,
trigon^, trinomial, trionym^, triplopia^, tripod, trireme, triseme^,
triskele^, triskelion, trisula^.
third power, cube; cube root.
Adj. three; triform^, trinal^, trinomial; tertiary; ternary; triune;
triarch, triadie^; triple &c 93.
tri- [Pref.], tris- [Pref.].
Phr. tria juncta in uno [Lat.].

93. Triplication — N. triplication, triplicity^; trebleness^, trine.
V. treble, triple; triplicate, cube.
Adj. treble, triple; tern, ternary; triplicate, threefold, trilogistic^;
third; trinal^, trine.
Adv. three times, three fold; thrice, in the third place, thirdly;
trebly &c adj..

94. [Division into three parts.] Trisection — N. trisection,
tripartition^, trichotomy; third, third part.
V. trisect, divide into three parts.
Adj. trifid; trisected &c v.; tripartite, trichotomous^, trisulcate^.
Triadelphous^, triangular, tricuspid, tricapsular^, tridental^,
tridentate, tridentiferous^, trifoliate, trifurcate, trigonal^,
trigrammic^, trigrammatic^, tripetalous^, tripodal, tripodic^,
triquetral^, triquetrous^.

95. Four — N. quaternity^, four, tetrad, quartet, quaternion, square,
[planar form with four sides] tetract^, tetragon, quadrangle,
[three dimensional object with four surfaces] tetrahedron.
quadrature, quadrifoil, quadriform, quadruplet; quatrefoil.
[object or animal with four legs] tetrapod.
[geographical area with four sides] quadrangle, quad [Coll.].
[electromagnetic object] quadrupole.
[four fundamental studies] quadrivium.
V. reduce to a square, square.
Adj. four; quaternary, quaternal^; quadratic; quartile; tetract^,
tetractic^, tetractinal^; tetrad, tetragonal; square, quadrate.

96. Quadruplication — N. quadruplication.
V. multiply by four, quadruplicate, biquadrate^.
Adj. fourfold, four times; quadrable^, quadrumanous^, quadruple,
quadruplicate, quadrible^; fourth.
quadrifoliate^, quadrifoliolate^, quadrigeminal^, quadrigeminate^,
quadriplanar^, quadriserial^.
Adv. four times; in the fourth place, fourthly.

97. [Division into four parts.] Quadrisection — N. quadrisection,
quadripartition^; quartering &c v.; fourth; quart; quarter, quartern^;
farthing^, fourthing; quadrant.
V. quarter, divide into four parts.
Adj. quartered &c v.; quadrifid^, quadripartite.

98. Five &c — N. five, cinque [Fr.], quint, quincux^; six, half-a-
dozen, half dozen; seven; eight; nine, three times three; dicker; ten,
decade; eleven; twelve, dozen; thirteen; long dozen, baker’s dozen;
quintuplet; twenty, score; twenty-four, four and twenty, two dozen;
twenty-five, five and twenty, quarter of a hundred; forty, two score;
fifty, half a hundred; sixty, three score; seventy, three score and
ten; eighty, four score; ninety, fourscore and ten; sestiad^.
hundred, centenary, hecatomb, century; hundredweight, cwt.; one
hundred and forty-four, gross.
thousand, chiliad; millennium, thousand years, grand [Coll.];
myriad; ten thousand, ban [Jap.], man [Jap.]; ten thousand years,
banzai [Jap.]; lac, one hundred thousand, plum; million; thousand
million, milliard, billion, trillion &c
V. centuriate^; quintuplicate.
Adj. five, quinary^, quintuple; fifth; senary^, sextuple; sixth;
seventh; septuple; octuple; eighth; ninefold, ninth; tenfold, decimal,
denary^, decuple^, tenth; eleventh; duodenary^, duodenal; twelfth; in
one’s ‘teens, thirteenth.
vicesimal^, vigesimal; twentieth; twenty-fourth &c n.; vicenary^,
centuple^, centuplicate^, centennial, centenary, centurial^;
secular, hundredth; thousandth, &c

99. Quinquesection &c — N. division by five &c 98; quinquesection &c;
decimation; fifth &c
V. decimate; quinquesect.
Adj. quinquefid, quinquelateral, quinquepartite; quinqevalent,
pentavalent; quinquarticular^; octifid^; decimal, tenth, tithe;
duodecimal, twelfth; sexagesimal^, sexagenary^; hundredth, centesimal;
millesimal &c

100. {opp.
87} [More than one.] Plurality — N. plurality; a number, a
certain number; one or two, two or three &c; a few, several; multitude
&c 102; majority.
[large number] multitude &c 102.
Adj. plural, more than one, upwards of; some, several, a few; certain;
not alone &c 87.
Adv. et cetera, &c etc.
among other things, inter alia [Lat.].
Phr. non deficit alter [Lat.].


100a. [Less than one.] Fraction — N. fraction, fractional part; part
&c 51.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary, inconsiderable, negligible,

101. Zero — N. zero, nothing; null, nul, naught, nought, void; cipher,
goose egg; none, nobody, no one; nichts [G.], nixie [Slang], nix
[Slang]; zilch [Slang], zip [Slang], zippo [Slang]; not a soul; ame qui
vive [Fr.]; absence &c 187; unsubstantiality &c 4 [Obs.].
Adj. not one, not a one, not any, nary a one [Dial.]; not a, never a;
not a whit of, not an iota of, not a drop of, not a speck of, not a
jot; not a trace of, not a hint of, not a smidgen of, not a suspicion
of, not a shadow of, neither hide nor hair of.

102. Multitude — N. multitude; numerous &c adj.; numerosity,
numerality; multiplicity; profusion &c (plenty) 639; legion, host;
great number, large number, round number, enormous number; a quantity,
numbers, array, sight, army, sea, galaxy; scores, peck, bushel, shoal,
swarm, draught, bevy, cloud, flock, herd, drove, flight, covey, hive,
brood, litter, farrow, fry, nest; crowd &c (assemblage) 72; lots; all
in the world and his wife.
[Increase of number] greater number, majority; multiplication,
V. be numerous &c adj.; swarm with, teem with, creep with; crowd,
swarm, come thick upon; outnumber, multiply; people; swarm like
locusts, swarm like bees.
Adj. many, several, sundry, divers, various, not a few; Briarean; a
hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a million, a quadrillion, a nonillion, a
thousand and one; some ten or a dozen, some forty or fifty &c; half a
dozen, half a hundred &c; very many, full many, ever so many; numerous;
numerose^; profuse, in profusion; manifold, multiplied, multitudinous,
multiple, multinominal, teeming, populous, peopled, crowded, thick,
studded; galore.
thick coming, many more, more than one can tell, a world of; no
end of, no end to; cum multis aliis [Lat.]; thick as hops, thick as
hail; plenty as blackberries; numerous as the stars in the firmament,
numerous as the sands on the seashore, numerous as the hairs on the
head; and what not, and heaven knows what; endless &c (infinite) 105.
Phr. their name is ‘legion’; acervatim [Lat.]; en foule [Fr.]; many-
headed multitude [Sidney]; numerous as glittering gems of morning dew
[Young]; vel prece vel pretio [Lat.].

103. Fewness — N. fewness &c adj.; paucity, small number; small
quantity &c 32; rarity; infrequency &c 137; handful, maniple; minority;
[Diminution of number] reduction; weeding &c v.; elimination,
sarculation^, decimation; eradication.
V. be few &c adj.. render few &c adj.; reduce, diminish the number,
weed, eliminate, cull, thin, decimate.
Adj. few; scant, scanty; thin, rare, scattered, thinly scattered,
spotty, few and far between, exiguous; infrequent &c 137; rari nantes
[Lat.]; hardly any, scarcely any; to be counted on one’s fingers;
reduced &c v.; unrepeated^.
Adv. rarely, here and there.

104. Repetition — N. repetition, iteration, reiteration, harping,
recurrence, succession, run; battology, tautology; monotony,
tautophony; rhythm &c 138; diffuseness, pleonasm, redundancy.
chimes, repetend, echo, ritornello^, burden of a song, refrain;
rehearsal; rechauffe [Fr.], rifacimento [It], recapitulation.
cuckoo &c (imitation) 19; reverberation &c 408; drumming &c (roll)
407; renewal &c (restoration) 660.
twice-told tale; old story, old song; second edition, new edition;
reappearance, reproduction, recursion [Comp.]; periodicity &c 138.
V. repeat, iterate, reiterate, reproduce, echo, reecho, drum, harp
upon, battologize^, hammer, redouble.
recur, revert, return, reappear, recurse [Comp.]; renew &c
(restore) 660.
rehearse; do over again, say over again; ring the changes on; harp
on the same string; din in the ear, drum in the ear; conjugate in all
its moods tenses and inflexions^, begin again, go over the same ground,
go the same round, never hear the last of; resume, return to,
recapitulate, reword.
Adj. repeated &c v.; repetitional^, repetitionary^; recurrent,
recurring; ever recurring, thick coming; frequent, incessant;
redundant, pleonastic.
monotonous, harping, iterative, recursive [Comp.], unvaried;
mocking, chiming; retold; aforesaid, aforenamed^; above-mentioned,
above-said; habitual &c 613; another.
Adv. repeatedly, often, again, anew, over again, afresh, once more;
ding-dong, ditto, encore, de novo, bis^, da capo [It].
again and again; over and over, over and over again; recursively
[Comp.]; many times over; time and again, time after time; year after
year; day by day &c; many times, several times, a number of times; many
a time, full many a time; frequently &c 136.
Phr. ecce iterum Crispinus [Lat.]; toujours perdrix [Fr.]; cut and come
again [Crabbe]; tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow [Macbeth];
cantilenam eandem canis [Lat.] [Terence]; nullum est jam dictum quod
non dictum sit prius [Lat.] [Terence].

105. Infinity — N. infinity, infinitude, infiniteness &c adj.;
perpetuity &c 112; boundlessness.
V. be infinite &c adj.; know no limits, have no limits, know no bounds,
have no bounds; go on for ever.
Adj. infinite; immense; numberless, countless, sumless^, measureless;
innumerable, immeasurable, incalculable, illimitable, inexhaustible,
interminable, unfathomable, unapproachable; exhaustless, indefinite;
without number, without measure, without limit, without end;
incomprehensible; limitless, endless, boundless, termless^; untold,
unnumbered, unmeasured, unbounded, unlimited; illimited^; perpetual &c
Adv. infinitely &c adj.; ad infinitum.
Phr. as boundless as the sea [Romeo and Juliet].



106. Time — N. time, duration; period, term, stage, space, span,
spell, season; the whole time, the whole period; space-time; course &c
109; snap.
intermediate time, while, interim, interval, pendency^;
intervention, intermission, intermittence, interregnum, interlude;
era, epoch; time of life, age, year, date; decade &c (period) 108;
moment, &c (instant) 113.
glass of time, sands of time, march of time, Father Time, ravages
of time; arrow of time; river of time, whirligig of time, noiseless
foot of time; scythe.
V. continue last endure, go on, remain, persist; intervene; elapse &c
109; hold out.
take time, take up time, fill time, occupy time.
pass time, pass away time, spend time, while away time, consume
time, talk against time; tide over; use time, employ time; seize an
opportunity &c 134; waste time &c (be inactive) 683.
Adj. continuing &c v.; on foot; permanent &c (durable) 110.
Adv. while, whilst, during, pending; during the time, during the
interval; in the course of, at that point, at that point in time; for
the time being, day by day; in the time of, when; meantime, meanwhile;
in the meantime, in the interim; ad interim, pendente lite [Lat.]; de
die in diem [Lat.]; from day to day, from hour to hour &c; hourly,
always; for a time, for a season; till, until, up to, yet, as far as,
by that time, so far, hereunto, heretofore, prior to this, up to this
the whole time, all the time; all along; throughout &c
(completely) 52; for good &c (diuturnity) 110.
hereupon, thereupon, whereupon; then; anno Domini, A.D.; ante
Christum, A.C.; before Christ, B.C.; anno urbis conditae [Lat.],
A.U.C.; anno regni [Lat.], A.R.; once upon a time, one fine morning,
one fine day, one day, once.
Phr. time flies, tempus fugit [Lat.]; time runs out, time runs against,
race against time, racing the clock, time marches on, time is of the
essence, time and tide wait for no man.
ad calendas Groecas [Lat.]; panting Time toileth after him in vain
[Johnson]; ‘gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion [Contr.]
[Measure for Measure]; rich with the spoils of time [Gray]; tempus edax
rerum [Lat.] [Horace]; the long hours come and go [C.G.
Rossetti]; the time is out of joint [Hamlet]; Time rolls his
ceaseless course [Scott]; Time the foe of man’s dominion [Peacock];
time wasted is existence, used is life [Young]; truditur dies die
[Lat.] [Horace]; volat hora per orbem [Lat.] [Lucretius]; carpe diem

107. Neverness — N. neverness; absence of time, no time; dies non;
Tib’s eve; Greek Kalends, a blue moon.
Adv. never, ne’er [Contr.]; at no time, at no period; on the second
Tuesday of the week, when Hell freezes over; on no occasion, never in
all one’s born days, nevermore, sine die; in no degree.

108. [Definite duration, or portion of time.] Period — N. period, age,
era; second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade,
decenniumm lustrum^, quinquennium, lifetime, generation; epoch, ghurry^,
lunation^, moon.
century, millennium; annus magnus [Lat.].
Adj. horary^; hourly, annual &c (periodical) 138.

108a. Contingent Duration —
Adv. during pleasure, during good behavior; quamdiu se bene gesserit

109. [Indefinite duration.] Course — N. corridors of time, sweep of
time, vesta of time^, course of time, progress of time, process of time,
succession of time, lapse of time, flow of time, flux of time, stream
of time, tract of time, current of time, tide of time, march of time,
step of time, flight of time; duration &c 106.
[Indefinite time] aorist^.
V. elapse, lapse, flow, run, proceed, advance, pass; roll on, wear on,
press on; flit, fly, slip, slide, glide; run its course.
run out, expire; go by, pass by; be past &c 122.
Adj. elapsing &c v.; aoristic^; progressive.
Adv. in due time, in due season; in in due course, in due process, in
the fullness of time; in time.
Phr. labitur et labetur [Lat.] [Horace]; truditur dies die [Lat.]
[Horace]; fugaces labuntur anni [Lat.] [Horace]; tomorrow and tomorrow
and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day [Macbeth].

110. [Long duration.] Diuturnity — N. diuturnity^; a long time, a
length of time; an age, a century, an eternity; slowness &c 275;
perpetuity &c 112; blue moon, coon’s age [U.S.], dog’s age.
durableness, durability; persistence, endlessness, lastingness &c
adj.^; continuance, standing; permanence &c (stability) 150; survival,
survivance^; longevity &c (age) 128; distance of time.
protraction of time, prolongation of time, extension of time;
delay &c (lateness) 133.
V. last, endure, stand, remain, abide, continue, brave a thousand
tarry &c (be late) 133; drag on, drag its slow length along, drag
a lengthening chain; protract, prolong; spin out, eke out, draw out,
lengthen out; temporize; gain time, make time, talk against time.
outlast, outlive; survive; live to fight again.
Adj. durable; lasting &c v.; of long duration, of long-standing;
permanent, endless, chronic, long-standing; intransient^, intransitive;
intransmutable^, persistent; lifelong, livelong; longeval^, long-lived,
macrobiotic, diuturnal^, evergreen, perennial; sempervirent^,
sempervirid^; unrelenting, unintermitting^, unremitting; perpetual &c
lingering, protracted, prolonged, spun out &c v.. long-pending,
long-winded; slow &c 275.
Adv. long; for a long time, for an age, for ages, for ever so long, for
many a long day; long ago &c (in a past time) 122; longo intervallo
all the day long, all the year round; the livelong day, as the day
is long, morning noon and night; hour after hour, day after day, &c;
for good; permanently &c adj..

111. [Short duration.] Transientness — N. transience, transientness &c
adj.^; evanescence, impermanence, fugacity [Chem], caducity^, mortality,
span; nine days’ wonder, bubble, Mayfly; spurt; flash in the pan;
temporary arrangement, interregnum.
velocity &c 274; suddenness &c 113; changeableness &c 149.
transient, transient boarder, transient guest [U.S.].
V. be transient &c adj.; flit, pass away, fly, gallop, vanish, fade,
evaporate; pass away like a cloud, pass away like a summer cloud, pass
away like a shadow, pass away like a dream.
Adj. transient, transitory, transitive; passing, evanescent, fleeting,
cursory, short-lived, ephemeral; flying &c v.; fugacious, fugitive;
shifting, slippery; spasmodic; instantaneous, momentaneous^.
temporal, temporary; provisional, provisory; deciduous;
perishable, mortal, precarious, unstable, insecure; impermanent.
brief, quick, brisk, extemporaneous, summary; pressed for time &c
(haste) 684; sudden, momentary &c (instantaneous) 113.
Adv. temporarily &c adj.; pro tempore [Lat.]; for the moment, for a
time; awhile, en passant [Fr.], in transitu [Lat.]; in a short time;
soon &c (early) 132; briefly &c adj.; at short notice; on the point of,
on the eve of; in articulo; between cup and lip.
Phr. one’s days are numbered; the time is up; here today and gone
tomorrow; non semper erit aestas [Lat.]; eheu! fugaces labuntur anni
[Lat.]; sic transit gloria mundi [Lat.]; a schoolboy’s tale, the wonder
of the hour! [Byron]; dum loquimur fugerit invidia aetas [Lat.]; fugit
hora [Lat.]; all that is transitory is but an illusion [Goethe].

112. [Endless duration.] Perpetuity — N. perpetuity, eternity,
everness^, aye, sempiternity^, immortality, athanasia^; interminability^,
agelessness^, everlastingness &c adj.; perpetuation; continued
existence, uninterrupted existence; perennity^; permanence (durability)
V. last forever, endure forever, go on forever; have no end.
eternize, perpetuate.
Adj. perpetual, eternal; everduring^, everlasting, ever-living, ever-
flowing; continual, sempiternal^; coeternal; endless, unending;
ceaseless, incessant, uninterrupted, indesinent^, unceasing; endless,
unending, interminable, having no end; unfading^, evergreen,
amaranthine; neverending^, never-dying, never-fading; deathless,
immortal, undying, imperishable.
Adv. perpetually &c adj.; always, ever, evermore, aye; for ever, for
aye, till the end of the universe, forevermore, forever and a day, for
ever and ever; in all ages, from age to age; without end; world without
end, time without end; in secula seculorum [Lat.]; to the end of time,
to the crack of doom, to the ‘last syllable of recorded time’
[Macbeth]; till doomsday; constantly &c (very frequently) 136.
Phr. esto perpetuum [Lat.]; labitur et labetur in omne volubilis oevum
[Lat.] [Horace]; but thou shall flourish in immortal youth [Addison];
Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought [Addison]; her immortal part
with angels lives [Romeo and Juliet]; ohne Rast [G.], [Goethe’s motto];
ora e sempre [It].

113. [Point of time] Instantaneity — N. instantaneity,
instantaneousness, immediacy; suddenness, abruptness.
moment, instant, second, minute; twinkling, trice, flash, breath,
crack, jiffy, coup, burst, flash of lightning, stroke of time.
epoch, time; time of day, time of night; hour, minute; very minute
&c, very time, very hour; present time, right time, true time, exact
correct time.
V. be instantaneous &c adj.; twinkle, flash.
Adj. instantaneous, momentary, sudden, immediate, instant, abrupt,
discontinuous, precipitous, precipitant, precipitate; subitaneous^,
hasty; quick as thought, quick as lightning, quick as a flash; rapid as
speedy, quick, fast, fleet, swift, lively, blitz; rapid (velocity)
Adv. instantaneously &c adj.; in no time, in less than no time; presto,
subito^, instanter, suddenly, at a stroke, like a shot; in a moment &c
n.. in the blink of an eye, in the twinkling of an eye, in a trice; in
one’s tracks; right away; toute a l’heure [Fr.]; at one jump, in the
same breath, per saltum [Lat.], uno saltu [Lat.]; at once, all at once;
plump, slap; at one fell swoop; at the same instant &c n.; immediately
&c (early) 132; extempore, on the moment, on the spot, on the spur of
the moment; no sooner said than done; just then; slap-dash &c (haste)
Phr. touch and go; no sooner said than done.

114. [Estimation, measurement, and record of time.] Chronometry — N.
chronometry, horometry^, horology; date, epoch; style, era.
almanac, calendar, ephemeris; register, registry; chronicle,
annals, journal, diary.
[Instruments for the measurement of time] chronogram; clock, wall
clock, pendulum clock, grandfather’s clock, cuckoo clock, alarm clock,
clock radio; watch, wristwatch, pocket watch, stopwatch, Swiss watch;
atomic clock, digital clock, analog clock, quartz watch, water clock;
chronometer, chronoscope^, chronograph; repeater; timekeeper, timepiece;
dial, sundial, gnomon, horologe, pendulum, hourglass, clepsydra^;
chronographer^, chronologer, chronologist, timekeeper; annalist.
calendar year, leap year, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar,
Chinese calendar, Jewish calendar, perpetual calendar, Farmer’s
almanac, fiscal year.
V. fix the time, mark the time; date, register, chronicle; measure
time, beat time, mark time; bear date; synchronize watches.
Adj. chronological, chronometrical^, chronogrammatical^; cinquecento
[Fr.], quattrocento^, trecento^.
Adv. o’clock.

115. [False estimate of time.] Anachronism — N. anachronism,
metachronism, parachronism, prochronism; prolepsis, misdate;
anticipation, antichronism.
disregard of time, neglect of time, oblivion of time.
intempestivity &c 135 [Obs.].
V. misdate, antedate, postdate, backdate, overdate^; anticipate; take no
note of time, lose track of time; anachronize^.
Adj. misdated &c v.; undated; overdue, past due; out of date.

1. Time with reference to Succession

116. Priority — N. priority, antecedence, anteriority, precedence,
pre-existence; precession &c 280; precursor &c 64; the past &c 122;
V. precede, come before; forerun; go before &c (lead) 280; preexist;
dawn; presage &c 511; herald, usher in.
be beforehand &c (be early) 132; steal a march upon, anticipate,
forestall; have the start, gain the start.
Adj. prior, previous; preceding, precedent; anterior, antecedent; pre-
existing, pre-existent; former, foregoing; aforementioned, before-
mentioned, abovementioned; aforesaid, said; introductory &c
(precursory) 64.
Adv. before, prior to; earlier; previously &c adj.; afore^, aforehand^,
beforehand, ere, theretofore, erewhile^; ere then, ere now, before then,
before now; erewhile^, already, yet, beforehand; on the eve of.
Phr. prior tempore prior jure [Lat.].

117. Posteriority — N. posteriority; succession, sequence; following
&c 281; subsequence, supervention; futurity &c 121; successor; sequel
&c 65; remainder, reversion.
V. follow after &c 281, come after, go after; succeed, supervene;
ensue, occur; step into the shoes of.
Adj. subsequent, posterior, following, after, later, succeeding,
postliminious^, postnate^; postdiluvial^, postdiluvian^; puisne^;
posthumous; future &c 121; afterdinner, postprandial.
Adv. subsequently, after, afterwards, since, later; at a subsequent, at
a later period, at a later date; next, in the sequel, close upon,
thereafter, thereupon, upon which, eftsoons^; from that time, from that
moment; after a while, after a time; in process of time.

118. The Present Time — N. the present, the present time, the present
day, the present moment, the present juncture, the present occasion;
the times, the existing time, the time being; today, these days,
nowadays, our times, modern times, the twentieth century; nonce,
crisis, epoch, day, hour.
age, time of life.
Adj. present, actual, instant, current, existing, extant, that is;
present-day, up-to-date, up-to-the-moment.
Adv. at this time, at this moment &c 113; at the present time &c n.;
now, at present; at hand.
at this time of day, today, nowadays; already; even now, but now,
just now; on the present occasion; for the time being, for the nonce;
pro hac vice. [Lat.]; on the nail, on the spot; on the spur of the
moment, until now; to this day, to the present day.
Phr. the present hour alone is man’s [Johnson].

119. [Time different from the present.] Different time — N. different
time, other time.
[Indefinite time] aorist.
Adj. aoristic; indefinite.
Adv. at that time, at which time, at that moment, at that instant;
then, on that occasion, upon; not now, some other time.
when; whenever, whensoever; upon which, on which occasion; at
another time, at a different time, at some other time, at any time; at
various times; some one of these days, one of these days, one fine
morning; eventually, some day, by and by, sooner or later; some time or
other; once upon a time.

120. Synchronism — N. synchronism; coexistence, coincidence;
simultaneousness, simultaneity &c adj.; concurrence, concomitance,
unity of time, interim.
[Having equal times] isochronism^.
contemporary, coetanian^.
V. coexist, concur, accompany, go hand in hand, keep pace with;
Adj. synchronous, synchronal^, synchronic, synchronical,
synchronistical^; simultaneous, coexisting, coincident, concomitant,
concurrent; coeval, coevous^; contemporary, contemporaneous;
coetaneous^; coeternal; isochronous.
Adv. at the same time; simultaneously &c adj.; together, in concert,
during the same time; in the same breath; pari passu [Lat.]; in the
interim; as one.
at the very moment &c 113; just as, as soon as; meanwhile &c
(while) 106.

121. [Prospective time.] Futurity — N. futurity, futurition; future,
hereafter, time to come; approaching time, coming time, subsequent
time, after time, approaching age, coming age, subsequent age, after
age, approaching days, coming days, subsequent days, after days,
approaching hours, coming hours, subsequent hours, after hours,
approaching ages, coming ages, subsequent ages, after ages, approaching
life, coming life, subsequent life, after life, approaching years,
coming years, subsequent years, after years; morrow; millennium,
doomsday, day of judgment, crack of doom, remote future.
approach of time advent, time drawing on, womb of time; destiny &c
152; eventuality.
heritage, heirs posterity.
prospect &c (expectation) 507; foresight &c 510.
V. look forwards; anticipate &c (expect) 507, (foresee) 510; forestall
&c (be early) 132.
come on, draw on; draw near; approach, await, threaten; impend &c
(be destined) 152.
Adj. future, to come; coming &c (impending) 152; next, near; close at
hand; eventual, ulterior; in prospect &c (expectation) 507.
Adv. prospectively, hereafter, in future; kal^, tomorrow, the day after
tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of
time; eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo [Lat.]; paulo
post futurum [Lat.]; in after time; one of these days; after a time,
after a while.
from this time; henceforth, henceforwards^; thence; thenceforth,
thenceforward; whereupon, upon which.
soon &c (early) 132; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink
of; about to; close upon.
Phr. quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere [Lat.] [Horace].

122. [Retrospective time.] The Past — N. the past, past time; days of
yore, times of yore, days of old, times of old, days past, times past,
days gone by, times gone by; bygone days; old times, ancient times,
former times; fore time; the good old days, the olden time, good old
time; auld lang syne^; eld^.
antiquity, antiqueness^, status quo; time immemorial; distance of
time; remote age, remote time; remote past; rust of antiquity.
[study of the past] paleontology, paleography, paleology^;
paleozoology; palaetiology^, archaeology; paleogeography; paleoecology;
paleobotany; paleoclimatoogy; archaism, antiquarianism, medievalism,
Pre-Raphaelitism; paleography.
retrospect, retrospection, looking back, memory &c 505.
laudator temporis acti [Lat.]; medievalist, Pre-Raphaelite;
antiquary, antiquarian; archmologist &c; Oldbuck, Dryasdust.
ancestry &c (paternity) 166.
V. be past &c adj.; have expired &c adj., have run its course, have had
its day; pass; pass by, go by, pass away, go away, pass off, go off;
lapse, blow over.
look back, trace back, cast the eyes back; exhume.
Adj. past, gone, gone by, over, passed away, bygone, foregone; elapsed,
lapsed, preterlapsed^, expired, no more, run out, blown over, has-been,
that has been, extinct, antediluvian, antebellum, never to return, gone
with the wind, exploded, forgotten, irrecoverable; obsolete &c (old)
former, pristine, quondam, ci-devant [Fr.], late; ancestral.
foregoing; last, latter; recent, over night; preterperfect^,
looking back &c v.; retrospective, retroactive; archaeological &c
Adv. paleo-; archaeo-; formerly; of old, of yore; erst [G.], whilom,
erewhile^, time was, ago, over; in the olden time &c n.; anciently, long
ago, long since; a long while, a long time ago; years ago, yesteryear,
ages ago; some time ago, some time since, some time back.
yesterday, the day before yesterday; last year, ultimo; lately &c
(newly) 123.
retrospectively; ere now, before now, till now; hitherto,
heretofore; no longer; once, once upon a time; from time immemorial,
from prehistoric times; in the memory of man; time out of mind;
already, yet, up to this time; ex post facto.
Phr. time was; the time has been, the time hath been; you can’t go home
again; fuimus Troes [Lat.] [Vergil]; fruit Ilium [Lat.] [Vergil]; hoc
erat in more majorum [Lat.]; O call back yesterday, bid time return
[Richard II]; tempi passati [It]; the eternal landscape of the past
[Tennyson]; ultimus Romanorum [Lat.]; what’s past is prologue
[Tempest]; whose yesterdays look backward with a smile [Young].
2. Time with reference to a particular period

123. Newness — N. newness &c adj.; novelty, recency; immaturity; youth
&c 127; gloss of novelty.
innovation; renovation &c (restoration) 660.
modernism; mushroom, parvenu; latest fashion.
V. renew &c (restore) 660; modernize.
Adj. new, novel, recent, fresh, green; young &c 127; evergreen; raw,
immature, unsettled, yeasty; virgin; untried, unhandseled^, untrodden,
untrod, unbeaten; fire-new, span-new.
late, modern, neoteric, hypermodern, nouveau; new-born, nascent,
neonatal [Med.], new-fashioned, new-fangled, new-fledged; of yesterday;
just out, brand-new, up to date, up to the minute, with it,
fashionable, in fashion; in, hip [Coll.]; vernal, renovated,
sempervirent^, sempervirid^.
fresh as a rose, fresh as a daisy, fresh as paint; spick and span.
Adv. newly &c adj.; afresh, anew, lately, just now, only yesterday, the
other day; latterly, of late.
not long ago, a short time ago.
Phr. di novello tutto par bello [It]; nullum est jam dictum quod non
dictum est prius [Lat.]; una scopa nuova spazza bene [It].

124. Oldness — N. oldness &c adj.^; age, antiquity; cobwebs of
maturity; decline, decay; senility &c 128.
seniority, eldership, primogeniture.
archaism &c (the past) 122; thing of the past, relic of the past;
megatherium^; Sanskrit.
tradition, prescription, custom, immemorial usage, common law.
V. be old &c adj.; have had its day, have seen its day; become old &c
adj.; age, fade, senesce.
Adj. old, ancient, antique; of long standing, time-honored, venerable;
elder, eldest; firstborn.
prime; primitive, primeval, primigenous^; paleolontological,
paleontologic, paleoanthropological, paleoanthropic^, paleolithic,
primordial, primordinate^; aboriginal &c (beginning) 66; diluvian^,
antediluvian; protohistoric^; prehistoric; antebellum, colonial,
precolumbian; patriarchal, preadamite^; paleocrystic^; fossil,
paleozoolical, paleozoic, preglacial^, antemundane^; archaic, classic,
medieval, Pre-Raphaelite, ancestral, black-letter.
immemorial, traditional, prescriptive, customary, whereof the
memory of man runneth not to the contrary; inveterate, rooted.
antiquated, of other times, rococo, of the old school, after-age,
obsolete; out of date, out of fashion, out of it; stale, old-fashioned,
behind the age; old-world; exploded; gone out, gone by; passe, run out;
senile &c 128; time worn; crumbling &c (deteriorated) 659; secondhand.
old as the hills, old as Methuselah, old as Adam^, old as history.
[geological eras (list, starting at given number of years bp)]
Archeozoic [5,000,000,000], Proterozoic [1,500,000,000], Paleozoic
[600,000,000], Mesozoic [220,000,000], Cenozoic [70,000,000].
[geological periods] Precambrian, Cambrian [600,000,000],
Ordovician [500,000,000], Silurian [440,000,000], Devonian
[400,000,000], Mississippian [350,000,000], Pennsylvanian
[300,000,000], Permian [270,000,000], Triassic [220,000,000], Jurassic
[180,000,000], Cretaceous [135,000,000], Tertiary [70,000,000],
Paleogene [70,000,000], Neocene [25,0000,000], Quaternary [1,000,000].
[geological epochs (list, starting at 70,000,000 years bp)]
Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent.
Adv. since the world was made, since the year one, since the days of
Phr. vetera extollimus recentium incuriosi [Lat.] [Tacitus].

125. Morning [Noon.] — N. morning, morn, forenoon, a.m., prime, dawn,
daybreak; dayspring^, foreday^, sunup; peep of day, break of day;
aurora; first blush of the morning, first flush of the morning, prime
of the morning; twilight, crepuscule, sunrise; cockcrow, cockcrowing^;
the small hours, the wee hours of the morning.
spring; vernal equinox, first point of Aries.
noon; midday, noonday; noontide, meridian, prime; nooning,
summer, midsummer.
Adj. matin, matutinal^; vernal.
Adv. at sunrise &c n.; with the sun, with the lark, when the morning
Phr. at shut of evening flowers [Paradise Lost]; entre chien et loup
[Fr.]; flames in the forehead of the morning sky [Milton]; the breezy
call of incense-breathing morn [Gray].

126. Evening [Midnight.] — N. evening, eve; decline of day, fall of
day, close of day; candlelight, candlelighting^; eventide, nightfall,
curfew, dusk, twilight, eleventh hour; sunset, sundown; going down of
the sun, cock-shut, dewy eve, gloaming, bedtime.
afternoon, postmeridian, p.m.
autumn, fall, fall of the leaf; autumnal equinox; Indian summer,
Luke’s summer, St.
Martin’s summer.
midnight; dead of night, witching hour, witching hour of night,
witching time of night; winter; killing time.
Adj. vespertine, autumnal, nocturnal.
Phr. midnight, the outpost of advancing day [Longfellow]; sable-vested
Night [Milton]; this gorgeous arch with golden worlds inlay’d [Young].

127. Youth — N. youth; juvenility, juvenescence^; juniority^; infancy;
babyhood, childhood, boyhood, girlhood, youthhood^; incunabula;
minority, nonage, teens, tender age, bloom.
cradle, nursery, leading strings, pupilage, puberty, pucelage^.
prime of life, flower of life, springtide of life^, seedtime of
life, golden season of life; heyday of youth, school days; rising
Adj. young, youthful, juvenile, green, callow, budding, sappy, puisne,
beardless, under age, in one’s teens; in statu pupillari [Lat.];
younger, junior; hebetic^, unfledged.
Phr. youth on the prow and pleasure at the helm [Gray]; youth a the
glad season of life [Carlyle].

128. Age — N. age; oldness^ &c adj.; old age, advanced age, golden
years; senility, senescence; years, anility^, gray hairs, climacteric,
grand climacteric, declining years, decrepitude, hoary age, caducity^,
superannuation; second childhood, second childishness; dotage; vale of
years, decline of life, sear and yellow leaf [Macbeth]; threescore
years and ten; green old age, ripe age; longevity; time of life.
seniority, eldership; elders &c (veteran) 130; firstling; doyen,
father; primogeniture.
[Science of old age.] geriatrics, nostology^.
V. be aged &c adj.; grow old, get old &c adj.; age; decline, wane,
dodder; senesce.
Adj. aged; old &c 124; elderly, geriatric, senile; matronly, anile^; in
years; ripe, mellow, run to seed, declining, waning, past one’s prime;
gray, gray-headed; hoar, hoary; venerable, time-worn, antiquated,
passe, effete, decrepit, superannuated; advanced in life, advanced in
years; stricken in years; wrinkled, marked withthe crow’s foot; having
one foot in the grave; doting &c (imbecile) 499; like the last of pea
older, elder, eldest; senior; firstborn.
turned of, years old; of a certain age, no chicken, old as
Methuselah; ancestral, patriarchal, &c (ancient) 124; gerontic.
Phr. give me a staff of honor for my age [Titus Andronicus]; bis pueri
senes [Lat.]; peu de gens savent elre vieux [Fr.]; plenus annis abiit
plenus honoribus [Lat.] [Pliny the Younger]; old age is creeping on
apace [Byron]; slow-consuming age [Gray]; the hoary head is a crown of
glory [Proverbs xvi, 31]; the silver livery of advised age [II Henry
VI]; to grow old gracefully; to vanish in the chinks that Time has made

129. Infant — N. infant, babe, baby, babe in arms; nurseling,
suckling, yearling, weanling; papoose, bambino; kid; vagitus.
child, bairn [Scot.], little one, brat, chit, pickaninny, urchin;
bantling, bratling^; elf.
youth, boy, lad, stripling, youngster, youngun, younker^, callant^,
whipster^, whippersnapper, whiffet [U.S.], schoolboy, hobbledehoy,
hopeful, cadet, minor, master.
scion; sap, seedling; tendril, olive branch, nestling, chicken,
larva, chrysalis, tadpole, whelp, cub, pullet, fry, callow; codlin,
codling; foetus, calf, colt, pup, foal, kitten; lamb, lambkin^;
aurelia^, caterpillar, cocoon, nymph, nympha^, orphan, pupa, staddle^.
girl; lass, lassie; wench, miss, damsel, demoiselle; maid, maiden;
virgin; hoyden.
Adj. infantine^, infantile; puerile; boyish, girlish, childish, babyish,
kittenish; baby; newborn, unfledged, new-fledged, callow.
in the cradle, in swaddling clothes, in long clothes, in arms, in
leading strings; at the breast; in one’s teens.

130. Veteran — N. veteran, old man, seer, patriarch, graybeard;
grandfather, grandsire; grandam; gaffer, gammer; crone; pantaloon;
sexagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian; old stager;
dotard &c 501.
preadamite^, Methuselah, Nestor, old Parr; elders; forefathers &c
(paternity) 166.
Phr. superfluous lags the veteran on the stage [Johnson].

131. Adolescence — N. adolescence, pubescence, majority; adultism;
adultness &c adj.; manhood, virility, maturity full age, ripe age;
flower of age; prime of life, meridian of life, spring of life.
man &c 373; woman &c 374; adult, no chicken.
V. come of age, come to man’s estate, come to years of discretion;
attain majority, assume the toga virilis [Lat.]; have cut one’s
eyeteeth, have sown one’s mild oats.
Adj. adolescent, pubescent, of age; of full age, of ripe age; out of
one’s teens, grown up, mature, full grown, in one’s prime, middle-aged,
manly, virile, adult; womanly, matronly; marriageable, nubile.
3. Time with reference to an Effect or Purpose

132. Earliness — N. {ant.
133} earliness &c adj.; morning &c 125.
punctuality; promptitude &c (activity) 682; haste &c (velocity)
274; suddenness &c (instantaneity) 113.
prematurity, precocity, precipitation, anticipation; a stitch in
V. be early &c adj., be beforehand &c adv.; keep time, take time by the
forelock, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start; steal
a march upon; gain time, draw on futurity; bespeak, secure, engage,
accelerate; expedite &c (quicken) 274; make haste &c (hurry) 684.
Adj. early, prime, forward; prompt &c (active) 682; summary.
premature, precipitate, precocious; prevenient^, anticipatory;
sudden &c (instantaneous) 113; unexpected &c 508; near, near at
hand; immediate.
Adv. early, soon, anon, betimes, rath^; eft, eftsoons; ere long, before
long, shortly; beforehand; prematurely &c adj.; precipitately &c
(hastily) 684; too soon; before its time, before one’s time; in
anticipation; unexpectedly &c 508.
suddenly &c (instantaneously) 113; before one can say ‘Jack
Robinson’, at short notice, extempore; on the spur of the moment, on
the spur of the occasion [Bacon]; at once; on the spot, on the instant;
at sight; offhand, out of hand; a’ vue d’oeil [Fr.]; straight,
straightway, straightforth^; forthwith, incontinently, summarily,
immediately, briefly, shortly, quickly, speedily, apace, before the ink
is dry, almost immediately, presently at the first opportunity, in no
long time, by and by, in a while, directly.
Phr. no sooner said than done, immediately, if not sooner; tout vient a
temps pour qui sait attendre [Fr.].

132a. Punctuality — N. punctuality, promptness, immediateness.
V. be prompt, be on time, be in time; arrive on time; be in the nick of
Adj. timely, seasonable, in time, punctual, prompt.
Adv. on time, punctually, at the deadline, precisely, exactly; right on
time, to the minute; in time; in good time, in military time, in
pudding time^, in due time; time enough; with no time to spare, by a
hair’s breadth.
Phr. touch and go, not a minute too soon, in the nick of time, just
under the wire, get on board before the train leaves the station.

133. Lateness — N. {ant.
132} lateness &c adj.; tardiness &c (slowness) 275.
delay, delation; cunctation, procrastination; deferring, deferral
&c v.; postponement, adjournment, prorogation, retardation, respite,
pause, reprieve, stay of execution; protraction, prolongation; Fabian
policy, medecine expectante [Fr.], chancery suit, federal case; leeway;
high time; moratorium, holdover.
V. be late &c adj.; tarry, wait, stay, bide, take time; dawdle &c (be
inactive) 683; linger, loiter; bide one’s time, take one’s time; gain
time; hang fire; stand over, lie over.
put off, defer, delay, lay over, suspend; table [Parl.]; shift
off, stave off; waive, retard, remand, postpone, adjourn;
procrastinate; dally; prolong, protract; spin out, draw out, lengthen
out, stretch out; prorogue; keep back; tide over; push to the last,
drive to the last; let the matter stand over; reserve &c (store) 636;
temporize; consult one’s pillow, sleep on it.
lose an opportunity &c 135; be kept waiting, dance attendance;
kick one’s heels, cool one’s heels; faire antichambre [Fr.]; wait
impatiently; await &c (expect) 507; sit up, sit up at night.
Adj. late, tardy, slow, behindhand, serotine^, belated, postliminious^,
posthumous, backward, unpunctual, untimely; delayed, postponed;
dilatory &c (slow) 275; delayed &c v.; in abeyance.
Adv. late; lateward^, backward; late in the day; at sunset, at the
eleventh hour, at length, at last; ultimately; after time, behind time,
after the deadline; too late; too late for &c 135.
slowly, leisurely, deliberately, at one’s leisure; ex post facto;
sine die.
Phr. nonum prematur in annum [Lat.] [Horace]; against the sunbeams
serotine and lucent [Longfellow]; ie meglio tardi che mai [It];
deliberando saepe perit occasio [Lat.] [Syrus].

134. Occasion — N. {ant.
135} timeliness, occasion, opportunity, opening, room; event
(eventuality) 151; suitable season, proper season, suitable time,
proper time; high time; opportuneness &c adj.; tempestivity^.
crisis, turn, juncture, conjuncture; crisis, turning point, given
nick of time; golden opportunity, well timed opportunity, fine
opportunity, favorable opportunity, opening; clear stage, fair field;
mollia tempora [Lat.]; fata Morgana [Lat.]; spare time &c (leisure)
V. seize an opportunity &c (take) 789, use an opportunity &c 677, give
an opportunity &c 784, use an occasion; improve the occasion.
suit the occasion &c (be expedient) 646.
seize the occasion, strike while the iron is hot, battre le fer
sur l’enclume [Fr.], make hay while the sun shines, seize the present
hour, take time by the forelock, prendre la balle au bond [Fr.].
Adj. opportune, timely, well-timed, timeful^, seasonable.
providential, lucky, fortunate, happy, favorable, propitious,
auspicious, critical; suitable &c 23; obiter dicta.
Adv. opportunely &c adj.; in proper course, in due course, in proper
season, in due season, in proper time, in due time; for the nonce; in
the nick of time, in the fullness of time; all in good time; just in
time, at the eleventh hour, now or never.
by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.], a propos [Fr.]; pro re
nata [Lat.], pro hac vice [Lat.]; par parenthese [Fr.],
parenthetically, by way of parenthesis, incidentally; while speaking
of, while on the subject; extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the
spur of the occasion; on the spot &c (early) 132.
Phr. carpe diem [Lat.], [Horace]; occasionem cognosce [Lat.]; one’s
hour is come, the time is up; that reminds me, now that you mention it,
come to think of it; bien perdu bien connu [Fr.]; e sempre l’ora [It];
ex quovis ligno non fit Mercurius [Lat.]; nosce tempus [Lat.]; nunc aut
nunquam [Lat.].

135. Untimeliness — N. {ant.
134} untimeliness, intempestivity^, unseasonableness, inexpedience;
unsuitable time, improper time; unreasonableness &c adj.; evil hour;
contretemps; intrusion; anachronism &c 115.
bad time, wrong time, inappropriate time, not the right occasion,
unsuitable time, inopportune time, poor timing.
V. be ill timed &c adj.; mistime, intrude, come amiss, break in upon;
have other fish to fry; be busy, be occupied.
lose an opportunity, throw away an opportunity, waste an
opportunity, neglect an opportunity &c 460; allow the opportunity to
pass, suffer the opportunity to pass, allow the opportunity to slip,
suffer the opportunity to slip, allow the opportunity to go by, suffer
the opportunity to go by, allow the opportunity to escape, suffer the
opportunity to escape, allow the opportunity to lapse, suffer the
opportunity to lapse, allow the occasion to pass, allow the occasion to
slip by; waste time &c (be inactive) 683; let slip through the fingers,
lock the barn door after the horse is stolen.
Adj. ill-timed, mistimed; ill-fated, ill-omened, ill-starred; untimely,
unseasonable; out of date, out of season; inopportune, timeless,
intrusive, untoward, mal a propos [Fr.], unlucky, inauspicious,
infelicitous, unbefitting, unpropitious, unfortunate, unfavorable;
unsuited &c 24; inexpedient &c 647.
unpunctual &c (late) 133; too late for; premature &c (early) 132;
too soon for; wise after the event, monday morning quarterbacking,
twenty-twenty hindsight.
Adv. inopportunely &c adj.; as ill luck would have it, in an evil hour,
the time having gone by, a day after the fair.
Phr. after death the doctor, after meat mustard.


136. Frequency — N. frequency, oftness^, oftenness^, commonness;
repetition &c 104; normality &c 80; example (conformity) 82; routine,
custom (habit) 613.
regularity, uniformity, constancy, clock-work precision;
punctuality &c (exactness) 494; even tenor; system; routine &c (custom)
613; formula; rule &c (form regulation) 697; keynote, standard, model;
precedent &c (prototype) 22; conformity &c 82.
V. recur &c 104; do nothing but; keep, keep on.
Adj. frequent, many times, not rare, thickcoming^, incessant, perpetual,
continual, steady, constant, thick; uniform; repeated &c 104; customary
&c 613 (habit) 613; regular (normal) 80; according to rule &c
(conformable) 82.
common, everyday, usual, ordinary, familiar.
old-hat, boring, well-known, trivial.
Adv. often, oft; ofttimes^, oftentimes; frequently; repeatedly &c 104;
unseldom^, not unfrequently^; in quick succession, in rapid succession;
many a time and oft; daily, hourly &c; every day, every hour, every
moment &c, perpetually, continually, constantly, incessantly, without
ceasing, at all times, daily and hourly, night and day, day and night,
day after day, morning noon and night, ever anon, invariably (habit)
most often; commonly &c (habitually) 613.
sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and then, from time to
time, there being times when, toties quoties [Lat.], often enough, when
the mood strikes, again and again.

137. Infrequency — N. infrequency, rareness, rarity; fewness &c 103;
seldomness^; uncommonness.
V. be rare &c adj..
Adj. unfrequent^, infrequent; rare, rare as a blue diamond; few &c 103;
scarce; almost unheard of, unprecedented, which has not occurred within
the memory of the oldest inhabitant, not within one’s previous
experience; not since Adam^.
scarce as hen’s teeth; one in a million; few and far between.
Adv. seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly; not often, not much,
infrequently, unfrequently^, unoften^; scarcely, scarcely ever, hardly
ever; once in a blue moon.
once; once in a blue moon; once in a million years; once for all,
once in a way; pro hac vice [Lat.].
Phr. ein mal kein mal [G.].

138. Periodicity [Regularity of recurrence] — N. periodicity,
intermittence; beat; oscillation &c 314; pulse, pulsation; rhythm;
alternation, alternateness, alternativeness, alternity^.
bout, round, revolution, rotation, turn, say.
anniversary, jubilee, centenary.
catamenia^, courses, menses, menstrual flux.
[Regularity of return] rota, cycle, period, stated time, routine;
days of the week; Sunday, Monday &c; months of the year; January &c;
feast, fast &c; Christmas, Easter, New Year’s day &c; Allhallows^,
Allhallowmas^, All Saints’ Day; All Souls’, All Souls’ Day; Ash
Wednesday, bicentennial, birthday, bissextile^, Candlemas^, Dewali,
groundhog day [U.S.], Halloween, Hallowmas^, Lady day, leap year,
Midsummer day, Muharram, woodchuck day [U.S.], St.
Swithin’s day, natal day; yearbook; yuletide.
punctuality, regularity, steadiness.
V. recur in regular order, recur in regular succession; return,
revolve; come again, come in its turn; come round, come round again;
beat, pulsate; alternate; intermit.
Adj. periodic, periodical; serial, recurrent, cyclical, rhythmical;
recurring &c v.; intermittent, remittent; alternate, every other.
hourly; diurnal, daily; quotidian, tertian, weekly; hebdomadal^,
hebdomadary^; biweekly, fortnightly; bimonthly; catamenial^; monthly,
menstrual; yearly, annual; biennial, triennial, &c; centennial,
secular; paschal, lenten, &c regular, steady, punctual, regular as
Adv. periodically &c adj.; at regular intervals, at stated times; at
fixed established, at established periods; punctually &c adj.. de die
in diem [Lat.]; from day to day, day by day.
by turns; in turn, in rotation; alternately, every other day, off
and on, ride and tie, round and round.

139. Irregularity of recurrence — N. irregularity, uncertainty,
unpunctuality; fitfulness &c adj.; capriciousness, ecrhythmus^.
Adj. irregular, uncertain, unpunctual, capricious, desultory, fitful,
flickering; rambling, rhapsodical; spasmodic; immethodical^,
unmethodical, variable.
Adv. irregularly &c adj.; by fits and starts &c (discontinuously) 70.



140. [Difference at different times.] Change — N. change, alteration,
mutation, permutation, variation, modification, modulation, inflexion,
mood, qualification, innovation, metastasis, deviation, turn,
evolution, revolution; diversion; break.
transformation, transfiguration; metamorphosis; transmutation;
deoxidization [Chem]; transubstantiation; [Genetics], mutagenesis
transanimation^, transmigration, metempsychosis^; avatar; alterative.
conversion &c (gradual change) 144; revolution &c (sudden or
radical change) 146, inversion &c (reversal) 218; displacement &c 185;
transference &c 270.
changeableness &c 149; tergiversation &c (change of mind) 607.
V. change, alter, vary, wax and wane; modulate, diversify, qualify,
tamper with; turn, shift, veer, tack, chop, shuffle, swerve, warp,
deviate, turn aside, evert, intervert^; pass to, take a turn, turn the
corner, resume.
work a change, modify, vamp, superinduce; transform, transfigure,
transmute, transmogrify, transume^; metamorphose, ring the changes.
innovate, introduce new blood, shuffle the cards; give a turn to,
give a color to; influence, turn the scale; shift the scene, turn over
a new leaf.
recast &c 146; reverse &c 218; disturb &c 61; convert into &c 144.
Adj. changed &c v.; newfangled; changeable &c 149; transitional;
modifiable; alterative.
Adv. mutatis mutandis [Lat.].
Int. quantum mutatus! [Lat.],
Phr. a change came o’er the spirit of my dream [Byron]; nous avons
change tout cela [Moliere]; tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis
[Lat.]; non sum qualis eram [Lat.] [Horace]; casaque tourner [Fr.];
corpora lente augescent cito extinguuntur [Tacitus]; in statu quo ante
bellum [Lat.]; still ending and beginning still [Cowper]; vox audita
perit littera scripta manet [Lat.].

141. [Absence of change.] Permanence — N. stability &c 150; quiescence
&c 265; obstinacy &c 606.
permanence, persistence, endurance; durability; standing, status
quo; maintenance, preservation, conservation; conservation; law of the
Medes and Persians; standing dish.
V. let alone, let be, let it be; persist, remain, stay, tarry, rest;
stet (copy editing) hold, hold on; last, endure, bide, abide, aby^,
dwell, maintain, keep; stand, stand still, stand fast; subsist, live,
outlive, survive; hold one’s ground, keep one’s ground, hold one’s
footing, keep one’s footing; hold good.
Adj. stable &c 150; persisting &c v.; permanent; established; unchanged
&c (change) &c 140; renewed; intact, inviolate; persistent; monotonous,
uncheckered^; unfailing.
undestroyed, unrepealed, unsuppressed^; conservative, qualis ab
incepto [Lat.]; prescriptive &c (old) 124; stationary &c 265.
Adv. in statu quo [Lat.]; for good, finally; at a stand, at a
standstill; uti possidetis [Lat.]; without a shadow of turning.
Phr. esto perpetua [Lat.]; nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.]; j’y
suis et j’y ereste [Fr.].

142. [Change from action to rest.] Cessation — N. cessation,
discontinuance, desistance, desinence^.
intermission, remission; suspense, suspension; interruption; stop;
stopping &c v.; closure, stoppage, halt; arrival &c 292.
pause, rest, lull, respite, truce, drop; interregnum, abeyance;
cloture [U.S.].
dead stop, dead stand, dead lock; finis, cerrado [Sp.]; blowout,
burnout, meltdown, disintegration; comma, colon, semicolon, period,
full stop; end &c 67; death &c 360.
V. cease, discontinue, desist, stay, halt; break off, leave off; hold,
stop, pull up, stop short; stick, hang fire; halt; pause, rest; burn
out, blow out, melt down.
have done with, give over, surcease, shut up shop; give up &c
(relinquish) 624.
hold one’s hand, stay one’s hand; rest on one’s oars repose on
one’s laurels.
come to a stand, come to a standstill; come to a deadlock, come to
a full stop; arrive &c 292; go out, die away; wear away, wear off; pass
away &c (be past) 122; be at an end; disintegrate, self-destruct.
intromit, interrupt, suspend, interpel^; intermit, remit; put an
end to, put a stop to, put a period to; derail; turn off, switch off,
power down, deactivate, disconnect; bring to a stand, bring to a
standstill; stop, cut short, arrest, stem the tide, stem the torrent;
pull the check-string, pull the plug on.
Int. hold!, stop!, enough!, avast!, have done!, a truce to!, soft!,
leave off!, tenez! [Fr.],
Phr. I pause for a reply [Julius Caesar].

143. Continuance in action — N. continuance, continuation; run;
perpetuation, prolongation; persistence &c (perseverance) 604.1;
repetition &c 104.
V. continue, persist; go on, jog on, keep on, run on, hold on; abide,
keep, pursue, stick to its course, take its course, maintain its
course; carry on, keep up.
sustain, uphold, hold up, keep on foot; follow up, perpetuate;
maintain; preserve &c 604.1; harp upon &c (repeat) 104.
keep going, keep alive, keep the pot boiling, keep up the ball,
keep up the good work; die in harness, die with one’s boots on; hold on
the even tenor of one’s way, pursue the even tenor of one’s way.
let be; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; quieta non movere
[Lat.]; let things take their course; stare decisis (Jurisprudence).
Adj. continuing &c v.; uninterrupted, unintermitting^, unvarying,
unshifting^; unreversed^, unstopped, unrevoked, unvaried; sustained;
undying &c (perpetual) 112; inconvertible.
Int. keep it up!, go to it!, right away!, right on!, attaboy!,
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.]; vestigia nulla retrorsum
[Lat.] [Horace]; labitur et albetur [Horace].

144. [Gradual change to something different.] Conversion — N.
conversion, reduction, transmutation, resolution, assimilation;
evolution, sea change; change of state; assumption; naturalization;
transportation; development [Biol.], developing.
[photography] [conversion of currency] conversion of currency,
exchange of currency; exchange rate; bureau de change.
chemistry, alchemy; progress, growth, lapse, flux.
passage; transit, transition; transmigration, shifting &c v.;
phase; conjugation; convertibility.
crucible, alembic, caldron, retort.
convert, pervert, renegade, apostate.
V. be converted into; become, get, wax; come to, turn to, turn into,
evolve into, develop into; turn out, lapse, shift; run into, fall into,
pass into, slide into, glide into, grow into, ripen into, open into,
resolve itself into, settle into, merge into, emerge as; melt, grow,
come round to, mature, mellow; assume the form of, assume the shape of,
assume the state of, assume the nature of, assume the character of;
illapse^; begin a new phase, assume a new phase, undergo a change.
convert into, resolve into; make, render; mold, form &c 240;
remodel, new model, refound^, reform, reorganize; assimilate to, bring
to, reduce to.
Adj. converted into &c v.; convertible, resolvable into; transitional;
Adv. gradually, &c (slowly) 275 in transitu &c (transference) 270

145. Reversion — N. reversion, return; revulsion.
turning point, turn of the tide; status quo ante bellum; calm
before a storm.
alternation &c (periodicity) 138; inversion &c 219; recoil &c 277;
retreat, regression, retrogression &c 283; restoration &c 660; relapse,
recidivism &c 661; atavism; vicinism^;
V. revert, turn back, regress; relapse &c 661; recoil &c 277; retreat
&c 283; restore &c 660; undo, unmake; turn the tide, roll back the
tide, turn the scale, tip the scale.
Adj. reverting &c v.; regressive, revulsive, reactionary; retrorse^.
Adv. a rebours [Fr.].

146. [Sudden or violent change.] Revolution — N. revolution,
bouleversement, subversion, break up; destruction &c 162; sudden
change, radical change, sweeping organic change; change of state, phase
change; quantum leap, quantum jump; clean sweep, coup d’etat [Fr.],
counter revolution.
jump, leap, plunge, jerk, start, transilience^; explosion; spasm,
convulsion, throe, revulsion; storm, earthquake, cataclysm.
legerdemain &c (trick) 545.
V. revolutionize; new model, remodel, recast; strike out something new,
break with the past; change the face of, unsex.
Adj. unrecognizable; revolutionary.

147. [Change of one thing for another.] Substitution — N.
substitution, commutation; supplanting &c v.; metaphor, metonymy &c
(figure of speech) 521.
[Thing substituted] substitute, ersatz, makeshift, temporary
expedient, replacement, succedaneum; shift, pis aller [Fr.], stopgap,
jury rigging, jury mast, locum tenens, warming pan, dummy, scapegoat;
double; changeling; quid pro quo, alternative.
representative &c (deputy) 759; palimpsest.
price, purchase money, consideration, equivalent.
V. substitute, put in the place of, change for; make way for, give
place to; supply the place of, take the place of; supplant, supersede,
replace, cut out, serve as a substitute; step into stand in the shoes
of; jury rig, make a shift with, put up with; borrow from Peter to pay
Paul, take money out of one pocket and put it in another, cannibalize;
commute, redeem, compound for.
Adj. substituted &c; ersatz; phony; vicarious, subdititious^.
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room of;
faute de mieux [Fr.].

148. [Double or mutual change.] Interchange — N. interchange,
exchange; commutation, permutation, intermutation; reciprocation,
transposition, rearrangement; shuffling; alternation, reciprocity;
castling (at chess); hocus-pocus.
interchangeableness^, interchangeability.
recombination; combination &c 48.
barter &c 794; tit for tat &c (retaliation) 718; cross fire,
battledore and shuttlecock; quid pro quo.
V. interchange, exchange, counterchange^; bandy, transpose, shuffle,
change bands, swap, permute, reciprocate, commute; give and take,
return the compliment; play at puss in the corner, play at battledore
and shuttlecock; retaliate &c 718; requite.
rearrange, recombine.
Adj. interchanged &c v.; reciprocal, mutual, commutative,
interchangeable, intercurrent^.
combinatorial [Math.].
recombinant [Biol.].
Adv. in exchange, vice versa, mutatis mutandis [Lat.], backwards and
forwards, by turns, turn and turn about; each in his turn, everyone in
his turn.


149. Changeableness — N. changeableness &c adj.; mutability,
inconstancy; versatility, mobility; instability, unstable equilibrium;
vacillation &c (irresolution) 605; fluctuation, vicissitude;
alternation &c (oscillation) 314.
restlessness &c adj.. fidgets, disquiet; disquietude, inquietude;
unrest; agitation &c 315.
moon, Proteus, chameleon, quicksilver, shifting sands,
weathercock, harlequin, Cynthia of the minute, April showers^; wheel of
Fortune; transientness &c 111 [Obs.].
V. fluctuate, vary, waver, flounder, flicker, flitter, flit, flutter,
shift, shuffle, shake, totter, tremble, vacillate, wamble^, turn and
turn about, ring the changes; sway to and fro, shift to and fro; change
and change about; waffle, blow with the wind (irresolute) 605;
oscillate &c 314; vibrate between, two extremes, oscillate between, two
extremes; alternate; have as man phases as the moon.
Adj. changeable, changeful; changing &c 140; mutable, variable,
checkered, ever changing; protean, proteiform^; versatile.
unstaid^, inconstant; unsteady, unstable, unfixed, unsettled;
fluctuating &c v.; restless; agitated &c 315; erratic, fickle;
irresolute &c 605; capricious &c 608; touch and go; inconsonant,
fitful, spasmodic; vibratory; vagrant, wayward; desultory; afloat;
alternating; alterable, plastic, mobile; transient &c 111; wavering.
Adv. seesaw &c (oscillation) 314; off and on.
Phr. a rolling stone gathers no moss; pictra mossa non fa muschis [It];
honores mutant mores [Lat.]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat.]

150. Stability — N. stability; immutability &c adj.; unchangeability,
&c adj.; unchangeableness^; constancy; stable equilibrium, immobility,
soundness, vitality, stabiliment^, stiffness, ankylosis^, solidity,
establishment, fixture; rock, pillar, tower, foundation, leopard’s
spots, Ethiopia’s skin.
permanence &c 141; obstinacy &c 606.
V. be firm &c adj.; stick fast; stand firm, keep firm, remain firm;
weather the storm, stay the course, stick to the course, keep the
faith, don’t give in, don’t buckle under.
settle, establish, stablish^, ascertain, fix, set, stabilitate^;
retain, keep hold; make good, make sure; fasten &c (join) 43; set on
its legs, float; perpetuate.
settle down; strike roots, put down roots, take root; take up
one’s abode &c 184; build one’s house on a rock.
Adj. unchangeable, immutable; unaltered, unalterable; not to be
changed, constant; permanent &c 141; invariable, undeviating; stable,
durable; perennial &c (diuturnal) 110 [Obs.].
fixed, steadfast, firm, fast, steady, balanced; confirmed, valid;
fiducial^; immovable, irremovable, riveted, rooted; settled, established
&c v.; vested; incontrovertible, stereotyped, indeclinable.
tethered, anchored, moored, at anchor, on a rock, rock solid, firm
as a rock; firmly seated, firmly established &c v.; deep-rooted,
ineradicable; inveterate; obstinate &c 606.
transfixed, stuck fast, aground, high and dry, stranded.
[movable object rendered unmovable] stuck, jammed; unremovable;
quiescent &c 265; deterioration &c 659.
indefeasible, irretrievable, intransmutable^, incommutable^,
irresoluble^, irrevocable, irreversible, reverseless^, inextinguishable,
irreducible; indissoluble, indissolvable^; indestructible, undying,
imperishable, incorruptible, indelible, indeciduous^; insusceptible,
insusceptible of change.
Int. stet.
Phr. littera scripta manet [Lat.].

Present Events

151. Eventuality — N. eventuality, event, occurrence, incident,
affair, matter, thing, episode, happening, proceeding, contingency,
juncture, experience, fact; matter of fact; naked fact, bare facts,
just the facts; phenomenon; advent.
business, concern, transaction, dealing, proceeding; circumstance,
particular, casualty, accident, adventure, passage, crisis, pass,
emergency, contingency, consequence; opportunity (occasion) 143.
the world, life, things, doings, affairs in general; things in
general, affairs in general; the times, state of affairs, order of the
day; course of things, tide of things, stream of things, current of
things, run of things, march of things, course of events; ups and downs
of life, vicissitudes of life; chapter of accidents &c (chance) 156;
situation &c (circumstances) 8.
V. happen, occur; take place, take effect; come, become of; come off,
comeabout^, come round, come into existence, come forth, come to pass,
come on; pass, present itself; fall; fall out, turn out; run, be on
foot, fall in; befall, betide, bechance^; prove, eventuate, draw on;
turn up, crop up, spring up, pop up, arise, show up, show its face,
appear, come forth, cast up; supervene, survene^; issue, arrive, ensue,
arise, start, hold, take its course; pass off &c (be past) 122.
meet with; experience, enjoy, encounter, undergo, suffer, pass
through, go through, be subjected to, be exposed to; fall to the lot
of; be one’s chance, be one’s fortune, be one’s lot; find; endure &c
(feel) 821.
Adj. happening &c v.; going on, doing, current; in the wind, in the
air, afloat; on foot, afoot, on the tapis^; at issue, in question;
eventful, stirring, bustling, full of incident; memorable,
momentous, signal.
Adv. eventually; in the event of, in case, just in case; in the course
of things; as things, times go; as the world goes, wags; as the tree
falls, cat jumps; as it may turn out, happen.
Phr. that’s the way the ball bounces, that’s the way the cookie
crumbles; you never know what may turn up, you never know what the
future will bring; the plot thickens; breasts the blows of circumstance
[Tennyson]; so runs round of life from hour to hour [Keble]; sprinkled
along the waste of years [Tennyson].

Future Events

152. Destiny — N. destiny &c (necessity) 601; future existence, post
existence; hereafter; future state, next world, world to come, after
life; futurity &c 121; everlasting life, everlasting death; life beyond
the grave, world beyond the grave; prospect &c (expectation) 507.
V. impend; hang over, lie over; threaten, loom, await, come on,
approach, stare one in the face; foreordain, preordain; predestine,
doom, have in store for.
Adj. impending &c v.; destined; about to be, happen; coming, in store,
to come, going to happen, instant, at hand, near; near, close at hand;
over hanging, hanging over one’s head, imminent; brewing, preparing,
forthcoming; int he wind, on the cards, in reserve; that will, is to
be; in prospect &c (expected) 507; looming in the distance, horizon,
future; unborn, in embryo; int he womb of time, futurity; pregnant &c
(producing) 161.
Adv. in time, the long run; all in good time; eventually &c 151;
whatever may happen &c (certainly) 474; as chance would have it &c 156.



153. [Constant antecedent]. Cause — N. cause, origin, source,
principle, element; occasioner^, prime mover, primum mobile [Lat.]; vera
causa [Lat.]; author &c (producer) 164; mainspring; agent; leaven;
groundwork, foundation &c (support) 215.
spring, fountain, well, font; fountainhead, spring head, wellhead;
fons et origo [Lat.], genesis; descent &c (paternity) 166; remote
cause; influence.
pivot, hinge, turning point, lever, crux, fulcrum; key; proximate
cause, causa causans [Lat.]; straw that breaks the camel’s back.
ground; reason, reason why; why and wherefore, rationale,
occasion, derivation; final cause &c (intention) 620; les dessous des
cartes [Fr.]; undercurrents.
egg, germ, embryo, bud, root, radix radical, etymon, nucleus,
seed, stem, stock, stirps, trunk, tap-root, gemmule^, radicle, semen,
nest, cradle, nursery, womb, nidus, birthplace, hotbed.
causality, causation; origination; production &c 161.
V. be the cause of &c n .; originate; give origin to, give rise, to,
give occasion to; cause, occasion, sow the seeds of, kindle, suscitate^;
bring on, bring to bring pass, bring about; produce; create &c 161; set
up, set afloat, set on foot; found, broach, institute, lay the
foundation of; lie at the root of.
procure, induce, draw down, open the door to, superinduce, evoke,
entail, operate; elicit, provoke.
conduce to &c (tend to) 176; contribute; have a hand in the pie,
have a finger in the pie; determine, decide, turn the scale; have a
common origin; derive its origin &c (effect) 154.
Adj. caused &c v.; causal, original; primary, primitive, primordial;
aboriginal; protogenal^; radical; embryonic, embryotic^; in embryo, in
ovo [Lat.]; seminal, germinal; at the bottom of; connate, having a
common origin.
Adv. because &c 155; behind the scenes.
Phr. causa latet vis est notissima [Lat.] [Ovid]; felix qui potuit
rerum cognoscere causas [Lat.] [Vergil].

154. [Constant sequent.] Effect — N. effect, consequence; aftergrowth^,
aftercome^; derivative, derivation; result; resultant, resultance^;
upshot, issue, denouement; end &c 67; development, outgrowth, fruit,
crop, harvest, product, bud.
production, produce, work, handiwork, fabric, performance;
creature, creation; offspring, offshoot; firstfruits^, firstlings;
heredity, telegony^; premices premises^.
V. be the effect of &c n.; be due to, be owing to; originate in,
originate from; rise from, arise, take its rise spring from, proceed
from, emanate from, come from, grow from, bud from, sprout from,
germinate from, issue from, flow from, result from, follow from, derive
its origin from, accrue from; come to, come of, come out of; depend
upon, hang upon, hinge upon, turn upon.
take the consequences, sow the wind and reap the whirlwind.
Adj. owing to; resulting from &c v.; derivable from; due to; caused by
&c 153; dependent upon; derived from, evolved from; derivative;
hereditary; telegonous^.
Adv. of course, it follows that, naturally, consequently; as a
consequence, in consequence; through, all along of, necessarily,
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.], thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the

155. [Assignment of cause] Attribution — N. attribution, theory,
etiology, ascription, reference to, rationale; accounting for &c v.;
palaetiology1, imputation, derivation from.
filiation^, affiliation; pedigree &c (paternity) 166.
explanation &c (interpretation) 522; reason why &c (cause) 153.
V. attribute to, ascribe to, impute to, refer to, lay to, point to,
trace to, bring home to; put down to, set down to, blame; charge on,
ground on; invest with, assign as cause, lay at, the door of, father
upon; account for, derive from, point out the reason &c 153; theorize;
tell how it comes; put the saddle on the right horse.
Adj. attributed &c v.; attributable &c v.; referable to, referrible to^,
due to, derivable from; owing to &c (effect) 154; putative; ecbatic^.
Adv. hence, thence, therefore, for, since, on account of, because,
owing to; on that account; from this cause, from that cause; thanks to,
forasmuch as; whence, propter hoc [Lat.].
why? wherefore? whence? how comes it, how is it, how happens it?
how does it happen? in some way, in some such way; somehow, somehow or
Phr. that is why; hinc illae lachrymae [Lat.] [Horace].

156. [Absence of assignable cause.] Chance — N. chance,
indetermination, accident, fortune, hazard, hap, haphazard, chance
medley, random, luck, raccroc^, casualty, contingence, adventure, hit;
fate &c (necessity) 601; equal chance; lottery; tombola^; toss up &c
621; turn of the table, turn of the cards; hazard of the die, chapter
of accidents, fickle finger of fate; cast of the dice, throw of the
dice; heads or tails, flip of a coin, wheel of Fortune; sortes^, sortes
probability, possibility, odds; long odds, run of luck;
accidentalness; main chance, odds on, favorable odds.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; situation
(circumstance) 8.
statistics, theory of Probabilities, theory of Chances;
bookmaking; assurance; speculation, gaming &c 621.
V. chance, hap, turn up; fall to one’s lot; be one’s fate &c 601;
stumble on light upon; take one’s chance &c 621.
Adj. casual, fortuitous, accidental, adventitious, causeless,
incidental, contingent, uncaused, undetermined, indeterminate; random,
statistical; possible &c 470; unintentional &c 621.
Adv. by chance, accidentally, by accident; casually; perchance &c
(possibly) 470; for aught one knows; as good would have it, as bad
would have it, as luck would have it, as ill-luck would have it, as
chance would have it; as it may be, as it may chance, as it may turn
up, as it may happen; as the case may be.
Phr. grasps the skirts of happy chance [Tennyson]; the accident of an
accident [Lord Thurlow].
There but for the grace of God go I


157. Power — N. power; potency, potentiality; jiva^; puissance, might,
force, energy &c 171; dint; right hand, right arm; ascendency^, sway,
control; prepotency, prepollence^; almightiness, omnipotence; authority
&c 737; strength &c 159.
ability; ableness &c adj.^; competency; efficacy; efficiency,
productivity, expertise (skill) 698; validity, cogency; enablement^;
vantage ground; influence &c 175.
pressure; conductivity; elasticity; gravity, electricity,
magnetism, galvanism, voltaic electricity, voltaism, electromagnetism;
atomic power, nuclear power, thermonuclear power; fuel cell; hydraulic
power, water power, hydroelectric power; solar power, solar energy,
solar panels; tidal power; wind power; attraction; vis inertiae [Lat.],
vis mortua [Lat.], vis viva [Lat.]; potential energy, dynamic energy;
dynamic friction, dynamic suction; live circuit, live rail, live wire.
capability, capacity; quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent
[Lat.]; faculty, quality, attribute, endowment, virtue, gift, property,
qualification, susceptibility.
V. be powerful &c adj.; gain power &c n.. belong to, pertain to; lie in
one’s power, be in one’s power; can, be able.
give power, confer power, exercise power &c n.; empower, enable,
invest; indue^, endue; endow, arm; strengthen &c 159; compel &c 744.
Adj. powerful, puissant; potential; capable, able; equal to, up to;
cogent, valid; efficient, productive; effective, effectual,
efficacious, adequate, competent; multipotent^, plenipotent^,
omnipotent; almighty.
forcible &c adj.. (energetic) 171; influential &c 175; productive
&c 168.
Adv. powerfully &c adj.; by virtue of, by dint of.
Phr. a toute force [Fr.]; dos moi pou sto kai kino ten gen [Gr.];
eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis [Lat.]; fortis cadere cedere
non potest [Lat.].

158. Impotence — N. impotence; inability, disability; disablement,
impuissance, imbecility; incapacity, incapability; inaptitude,
ineptitude, incompetence, unproductivity^; indocility^; invalidity,
disqualification; inefficiency, wastefulness.
telum imbelle [Lat.], brutum fulmen [Lat.], blank, blank
cartridge, flash in the pan, vox et proeterea nihil [Lat.], dead
letter, bit of waste paper, dummy; paper tiger; Quaker gun.
inefficacy &c (inutility) 645 [Obs.]; failure &c 732.
helplessness &c adj.; prostration, paralysis, palsy, apoplexy,
syncope, sideration^, deliquium [Lat.], collapse, exhaustion, softening
of the brain, inanition; emasculation, orchiotomy [Med.], orchotomy
cripple, old woman, muff, powder puff, creampuff, pussycat, wimp,
mollycoddle; eunuch.
V. be impotent &c adj.; not have a leg to stand on.
vouloir rompre l’anguille au genou [Fr.], vouloir prendre la lune
avec les dents [Fr.].
collapse, faint, swoon, fall into a swoon, drop; go by the board,
go by the wayside; go up in smoke, end in smoke &c (fail) 732.
render powerless &c adj.; deprive of power; disable, disenable^;
disarm, incapacitate, disqualify, unfit, invalidate, deaden, cramp, tie
the hands; double up, prostrate, paralyze, muzzle, cripple, becripple^,
maim, lame, hamstring, draw the teeth of; throttle, strangle, garrotte,
garrote; ratten^, silence, sprain, clip the wings of, put hors de combat
[Fr.], spike the guns; take the wind out of one’s sails, scotch the
snake, put a spoke in one’s wheel; break the neck, break the back;
unhinge, unfit; put out of gear.
unman, unnerve, enervate; emasculate, castrate, geld, alter,
neuter, sterilize, fix.
shatter, exhaust, weaken &c 160.
Adj. powerless, impotent, unable, incapable, incompetent; inefficient,
ineffective; inept; unfit, unfitted; unqualified, disqualified;
unendowed; inapt, unapt; crippled, disabled &c v.; armless^.
harmless, unarmed, weaponless, defenseless, sine ictu [Lat.],
unfortified, indefensible, vincible, pregnable, untenable.
paralytic, paralyzed; palsied, imbecile; nerveless, sinewless^,
marrowless^, pithless^, lustless^; emasculate, disjointed; out of joint,
out of gear; unnerved, unhinged; water-logged, on one’s beam ends,
rudderless; laid on one’s back; done up, dead beat, exhausted,
shattered, demoralized; graveled &c (in difficulty) 704; helpless,
unfriended^, fatherless; without a leg to stand on, hors de combat
[Fr.], laid on the shelf.
null and void, nugatory, inoperative, good for nothing;
ineffectual &c (failing) 732; inadequate &c 640; inefficacious &c
(useless) 645.
Phr. der kranke Mann [G.]; desirous still but impotent to rise
[Shenstone]; the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.

159. [Degree of power.] Strength — N. strength; power &c 157; energy
&c 171; vigor, force; main force, physical force, brute force; spring,
elasticity, tone, tension, tonicity.
stoutness &c adj.; lustihood^, stamina, nerve, muscle, sinew, thews
and sinews, physique; pith, pithiness; virtility, vitality.
athletics, athleticism^; gymnastics, feats of strength.
adamant, steel, iron, oak, heart of oak; iron grip; grit, bone.
athlete, gymnast, acrobat; superman, Atlas, Hercules, Antaeus^,
Samson, Cyclops, Goliath; tower of strength; giant refreshed.
strengthening &c v.; invigoration, refreshment, refocillation^.
[Science of forces] dynamics, statics.
V. be strong &c adj., be stronger; overmatch.
render strong &c adj.; give strength &c n.; strengthen,
invigorate, brace, nerve, fortify, sustain, harden, case harden, steel,
gird; screw up, wind up, set up; gird up one’s loins, brace up one’s
loins; recruit, set on one’s legs; vivify; refresh &c 689; refect^;
reinforce, reenforce &c (restore) 660.
Adj. strong, mighty, vigorous, forcible, hard, adamantine, stout,
robust, sturdy, hardy, powerful, potent, puissant, valid.
resistless, irresistible, invincible, proof against, impregnable,
unconquerable, indomitable, dominating, inextinguishable, unquenchable;
incontestable; more than a match for; overpowering, overwhelming; all
powerful, all sufficient; sovereign.
able-bodied; athletic; Herculean, Cyclopean, Atlantean^; muscular,
brawny, wiry, well-knit, broad-shouldered, sinewy, strapping, stalwart,
manly, man-like, manful; masculine, male, virile.
unweakened^, unallayed, unwithered^, unshaken, unworn, unexhausted^;
in full force, in full swing; in the plenitude of power.
stubborn, thick-ribbed, made of iron, deep-rooted; strong as a
lion, strong as a horse, strong as an ox, strong as brandy; sound as a
roach; in fine feather, in high feather; built like a brick shithouse;
like a giant refreshed.
Adv. strongly &c adj.; by force &c n.; by main force &c (by compulsion)
Phr. our withers are unwrung [Hamlet].
Blut und Eisen [G.]; coelitus mihi vires [Lat.]; du fort au diable
[Fr.]; en habiles gens [Lat.]; ex vi termini; flecti non frangi [Lat.];
he that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill
[Burke]; inflexible in faith invincible in arms [Beattie].

160. Weakness — N. weakness &c adj.; debility, atony^, relaxation,
languor, enervation; impotence &c 158; infirmity; effeminacy,
feminality^; fragility, flaccidity; inactivity &c 683.
anaemia, bloodlessness, deficiency of blood, poverty of blood.
declension of strength, loss of strength, failure of strength;
delicacy, invalidation, decrepitude, asthenia^, adynamy^, cachexy^,
cachexia [Med.], sprain, strain.
reed, thread, rope of sand, house of cards.
softling^, weakling; infant &c 129; youth &c 127.
V. be weak &c adj.; drop, crumble, give way, totter, tremble, shake,
halt, limp, fade, languish, decline, flag, fail, have one leg in the
render weak &c adj.; weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, shake, deprive
of strength, relax, enervate, eviscerate; unbrace, unnerve; cripple,
unman &c (render powerless) 158; cramp, reduce, sprain, strain, blunt
the edge of; dilute, impoverish; decimate; extenuate; reduce in
strength, reduce the strength of; mettre de l’eau dans son vin [Fr.].
Adj. weak, feeble, debile^; impotent &c 158; relaxed, unnerved, &c v.;
sapless, strengthless^, powerless; weakly, unstrung, flaccid, adynamic^,
asthenic^; nervous.
soft, effeminate, feminate^, womanly.
frail, fragile, shattery^; flimsy, unsubstantial, insubstantial,
gimcrack, gingerbread; rickety, creaky, creaking, cranky; craichy^;
drooping, tottering &c v.. broken, lame, withered, shattered, shaken,
crazy, shaky; palsied &c 158; decrepit.
languid, poor, infirm; faint, faintish^; sickly &c (disease) 655;
dull, slack, evanid^, spent, short-winded, effete; weather-beaten;
decayed, rotten, worn, seedy, languishing, wasted, washy, laid low,
pulled down, the worse for wear.
unstrengthened &c 159 [Obs.], unsupported, unaided, unassisted;
aidless^, defenseless &c 158; cantilevered (support) 215.
on its last legs; weak as a child, weak as a baby, weak as a
chicken, weak as a cat, weak as a rat; weak as water, weak as water
gruel, weak as gingerbread, weak as milk and water; colorless &c 429.
Phr. non sum qualis eram [Lat.].


161. Production — N. {ant.
162,, 158} production, creation, construction, formation,
fabrication, manufacture; building, architecture, erection,
edification; coinage; diaster^; organization; nisus formativus [Lat.];
putting together &c v.; establishment; workmanship, performance;
achievement &c (completion) 729.
flowering, fructification; inflorescence.
bringing forth &c v.; parturition, birth, birth-throe, childbirth,
delivery, confinement, accouchement, travail, labor, midwifery,
obstetrics; geniture^; gestation &c (maturation) 673; assimilation;
evolution, development, growth; entelechy [Phil.]; fertilization,
gemination, germination, heterogamy [Biol.], genesis, generation,
epigenesis^, procreation, progeneration^, propagation; fecundation,
impregnation; albumen &c 357.
spontaneous generation; archegenesis^, archebiosis^; biogenesis,
abiogenesis^, digenesis^, dysmerogenesis^, eumerogenesis^,
heterogenesis^, oogenesis, merogenesis^, metogenesis^, monogenesis^,
parthenogenesis, homogenesis^, xenogenesis1^; authorship, publication;
works, opus, oeuvre.
biogeny^, dissogeny^, xenogeny^; tocogony^, vacuolization.
edifice, building, structure, fabric, erection, pile, tower,
flower, fruit.
V. produce, perform, operate, do, make, gar, form, construct,
fabricate, frame, contrive, manufacture; weave, forge, coin, carve,
chisel; build, raise, edify, rear, erect, put together, set up, run up;
establish, constitute, compose, organize, institute; achieve,
accomplish &c (complete) 729.
flower, bear fruit, fructify, teem, ean^, yean^, farrow, drop, pup,
kitten, kindle; bear, lay, whelp, bring forth, give birth to, lie in,
be brought to bed of, evolve, pullulate, usher into the world.
make productive &c 168; create; beget, get, generate, fecundate,
impregnate; procreate, progenerate^, propagate; engender; bring into
being, call into being, bring into existence; breed, hatch, develop,
bring up.
induce, superinduce; suscitate^; cause &c 153; acquire &c 775.
Adj. produced, producing &c v.; productive of; prolific &c 168;
creative; formative, genetic, genial, genital; pregnant; enceinte, big
with, fraught with; in the family way, teeming, parturient, in the
straw, brought to bed of; puerperal, puerperous^.
digenetic^, heterogenetic^, oogenetic, xenogenetic^; ectogenous^,
gamic^, haematobious^, sporogenous [Biol.], sporophorous [Biol.].
Phr. ex nihilo nihil [Lat.]; fiat lux [Lat.]; materiam superabat opus
[Lat.] [Ovid]; nemo dat quod non habet [Lat.].

162. [Nonproduction.] Destruction — N. {ant.
161} destruction; waste, dissolution, breaking up; diruption^,
disruption; consumption; disorganization.
fall, downfall, devastation, ruin, perdition, crash; eboulement
[Fr.], smash, havoc, delabrement [Fr.], debacle; break down, break up,
fall apart; prostration; desolation, bouleversement [Fr.], wreck,
wrack, shipwreck, cataclysm; washout.
extinction, annihilation; destruction of life &c 361; knock-down
blow; doom, crack of doom.
destroying &c v.; demolition, demolishment; overthrow, subversion,
suppression; abolition &c (abrogation) 756; biblioclasm^; sacrifice;
ravage, razzia^; inactivation; incendiarism; revolution &c 146;
extirpation &c (extraction) 301; beginning of the end, commencement de
la fin [Fr.], road to ruin; dilapidation &c (deterioration) 659;
V. be destroyed &c; perish; fall to the ground; tumble, topple; go to
pieces, fall to pieces; break up; crumble to dust; go to the dogs, go
to the wall, go to smash, go to shivers, go to wreck, go to pot, go to
wrack and ruin; go by the board, go all to smash; be all over, be all
up, be all with; totter to its fall.
destroy; do away with, make away with; nullify; annual &c 756;
sacrifice, demolish; tear up; overturn, overthrow, overwhelm; upset,
subvert, put an end to; seal the doom of, do in, do for, dish [Slang],
undo; break up, cut up; break down, cut down, pull down, mow down, blow
down, beat down; suppress, quash, put down, do a job on; cut short,
take off, blot out; dispel, dissipate, dissolve; consume.
smash, crash, quell, squash, squelch, crumple up, shatter, shiver;
batter to pieces, tear to pieces, crush to pieces, cut to pieces, shake
to pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces; laniate^; nip; tear to rags,
tear to tatters; crush to atoms, knock to atoms; ruin; strike out;
throw over, knock down over; fell, sink, swamp, scuttle, wreck,
shipwreck, engulf, ingulf^, submerge; lay in ashes, lay in ruins; sweep
away, erase, wipe out, expunge, raze; level with the dust, level with
the ground; waste; atomize, vaporize.
deal destruction, desolate, devastate, lay waste, ravage gut;
disorganize; dismantle &c (render useless) 645; devour, swallow up,
sap, mine, blast, bomb, blow to smithereens, drop the big one,
confound; exterminate, extinguish, quench, annihilate; snuff out, put
out, stamp out, trample out; lay in the dust, trample in the dust;
prostrate; tread under foot; crush under foot, trample under foot; lay
the ax to the root of; make short work of, make clean sweep of, make
mincemeat of; cut up root and branch, chop into pieces, cut into
ribbons; fling to the winds, scatter to the winds; throw overboard;
strike at the root of, sap the foundations of, spring a mine, blow up,
ravage with fire and sword; cast to the dogs; eradicate &c 301.
Adj. destroyed &c v.; perishing &c v.; trembling to its fall, nodding
to its fall, tottering to its fall; in course of destruction &c n.;
all-destroying, all-devouring, all-engulfing.
destructive, subversive, ruinous, devastating; incendiary,
deletory^; destroying &c n.. suicidal; deadly &c (killing) 361.
Adv. with crushing effect, with a sledge hammer.
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat.]; dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit
[Lat.]; ecrasez l’infame [Voltaire].

163. Reproduction — N. reproduction, renovation; restoration &c 660;
renewal; new edition, reprint, revival, regeneration, palingenesis^,
revivification; apotheosis; resuscitation, reanimation, resurrection,
reappearance; regrowth; Phoenix.
generation &c (production) 161; multiplication.
V. reproduce; restore &c 660; revive, renovate, renew, regenerate,
revivify, resuscitate, reanimate; remake, refashion, stir the embers,
put into the crucible; multiply, repeat; resurge^.
crop up, spring up like mushrooms.
Adj. reproduced &c v.; renascent, reappearing; reproductive;

164. Producer — N. producer, originator, inventor, author, founder,
generator, mover, architect, creator, prime mover; maker &c (agent)
690; prime mover.

165. Destroyer — N. destroyer &c (destroy) &c 162; cankerworm &c
(bane) 663; assassin &c (killer) 361; executioner &c (punish) 975;
biblioclast^, eidoloclast^, iconoclast, idoloclast^; nihilist.

166. Paternity — N. paternity; parentage; consanguinity &c 11.
parent; father, sire, dad, papa, paterfamilias, abba^; genitor,
progenitor, procreator; ancestor; grandsire^, grandfather; great-
grandfather; fathership^, fatherhood; mabap^.
house, stem, trunk, tree, stock, stirps, pedigree, lineage, line,
family, tribe, sept, race, clan; genealogy, descent, extraction, birth,
ancestry; forefathers, forbears, patriarchs.
motherhood, maternity; mother, dam, mamma, materfamilias [Lat.],
Adj. paternal, parental; maternal; family, ancestral, linear,
Phr. avi numerantur avorum [Lat.]; happy he with such a mother
[Tennyson]; hombre bueno no le busquen abolengo [Sp.]; philosophia
stemma non inspicit [Lat.] [Seneca].

167. Posterity — N. posterity, progeny, breed, issue, offspring,
brood, litter, seed, farrow, spawn, spat; family, grandchildren, heirs;
child, son, daughter; butcha^; bantling, scion; acrospire^,
plumule^, shoot, sprout, olive-branch, sprit^, branch; off-shoot, off-
set; ramification; descendant; heir, heiress; heir-apparent, heir-
presumptive; chip off the old block; heredity; rising generation.
straight descent, sonship^, line, lineage, filiation^,
Adj. filial; diphyletic^.
Phr. the child is father of the man [Wordsworth]; the fruit doesn’t
fall far from the tree, like father, like son.

168. Productiveness — N. productiveness &c adj.; fecundity, fertility,
luxuriance, uberty^.
pregnancy, pullulation, fructification, multiplication,
propagation, procreation; superfetation.
milch cow, rabbit, hydra, warren, seed plot, land flowing with
milk and honey; second crop, aftermath; aftercrop, aftergrowth^;
arrish^, eddish^, rowen^; protoplasm; fertilization.
V. make productive &c adj.; fructify; procreate, generate, fertilize,
spermative^, impregnate; fecundate, fecundify^; teem, multiply; produce
&c 161; conceive.
Adj. productive, prolific; teeming, teemful^; fertile, fruitful,
frugiferous^, fruit-bearing; fecund, luxuriant; pregnant, uberous^.
procreant^, procreative; generative, life-giving, spermatic;
multiparous; omnific^, propagable.
parturient &c (producing) 161; profitable &c (useful) 644.

169. Unproductiveness — N. unproductiveness &c adj.; infertility,
sterility, infecundity^; masturbation; impotence &c 158;
unprofitableness &c (inutility) 645.
waste, desert, Sahara, wild, wilderness, howling wilderness.
V. be unproductive &c adj.; hang fire, flash in the pan, come to
[make unproductive] sterilize, addle; disable, inactivate.
Adj. unproductive, acarpous^, inoperative, barren, addled, infertile,
unfertile, unprolific^, arid, sterile, unfruitful, infecund^; sine
prole; fallow; teemless^, issueless^, fruitless; unprofitable &c
(useless) 645; null and void, of no effect.

170. Agency — N. agency, operation, force, working, strain, function,
office, maintenance, exercise, work, swing, play; interworking^,
interaction; procurement.
causation &c 153; instrumentality &c 631; influence &c 175; action
&c (voluntary) 680; modus operandi &c 627.
quickening power, maintaining power, sustaining power; home
V. be in action &c adj.; operate, work; act, act upon; perform, play,
support, sustain, strain, maintain, take effect, quicken, strike.
come play, come bring into operation; have play, have free play;
bring to bear upon.
Adj. operative, efficient, efficacious, practical, effectual.
at work, on foot; acting &c (doing) 680; in operation, in force,
in action, in play, in exercise; acted upon, wrought upon.
Adv. by the agency of, &c n.; through &c (instrumentality) 631; by
means of &c 632.
Phr. I myself must mix with action lest I wither by despair [Tennyson].

171. Physical Energy — N. energy, physical energy, force, power &c
157; keenness &c adj.; intensity, vigor, strength, elasticity; go; high
pressure; fire; rush.
acrimony, acritude^; causiticity^, virulence; poignancy; harshness
&c adj.; severity, edge, point; pungency &c 392.
cantharides; seasoning &c (condiment) 393.
activity, agitation, effervescence; ferment, fermentation;
ebullition, splutter, perturbation, stir, bustle; voluntary energy &c
682; quicksilver.
resolution &c (mental energy) 604; exertion &c (effort) 686;
excitation &c (mental) 824.
V. give energy &c n.; energize, stimulate, kindle, excite, exert;
sharpen, intensify; inflame &c (render violent) 173; wind up &c
(strengthen) 159.
strike home, into home, hard home; make an impression.
Adj. strong, energetic, forcible, active; intense, deep-dyed, severe,
keen, vivid, sharp, acute, incisive, trenchant, brisk.
rousing, irritation; poignant; virulent, caustic, corrosive,
mordant, harsh, stringent; double-edged, double-shotted^, double-
distilled; drastic, escharotic^; racy &c (pungent) 392.
potent &c (powerful) 157; radioactive.
Adv. strongly &c adj.; fortiter in re [Lat.]; with telling effect.
Phr. the steam is up; vires acquirit eundo [Lat.]; the race by vigor
not by vaunts is won [Pope].

172. Physical Inertness — N. inertness, dullness &c adj.; inertia, vis
inertiae [Lat.], inertion^, inactivity, torpor, languor; quiescence &c
265; latency, inaction; passivity.
mental inertness; sloth &c (inactivity) 683; inexcitability &c 826
[Obs.]; irresolution &c 605; obstinacy &c 606; permanence &c 141.
rare gas, paraffin, noble metal, unreactivity.
V. be inert &c adj.; hang fire, smolder.
Adj. inert, inactive, passive; torpid &c 683; sluggish, dull, heavy,
flat, slack, tame, slow, blunt; unreactive; lifeless, dead,
latent, dormant, smoldering, unexerted^.
Adv. inactively &c adj.; in suspense, in abeyance.

173. Violence — N. violence, inclemency, vehemence, might,
impetuosity; boisterousness &c adj.; effervescence, ebullition;
turbulence, bluster; uproar, callithump [U.S.], riot, row, rumpus, le
diable a quatre [Fr.], devil to pay, all the fat in the fire.
severity &c 739; ferocity, rage, fury; exacerbation, exasperation,
malignity; fit, paroxysm; orgasm, climax, aphrodisia^; force, brute
force; outrage; coup de main; strain, shock, shog^; spasm, convulsion,
throe; hysterics, passion &c (state of excitability) 825.
outbreak, outburst; debacle; burst, bounce, dissilience^,
discharge, volley, explosion, blow up, blast, detonation, rush,
eruption, displosion^, torrent.
turmoil &c (disorder) 59; ferment &c (agitation) 315; storm,
tempest, rough weather; squall &c (wind) 349; earthquake, volcano,
berserk, berserker; fury, dragon, demon, tiger, beldame,
Tisiphone^, Megaera, Alecto^, madcap, wild beast; fire eater &c
(blusterer) 887.
V. be violent &c adj.; run high; ferment, effervesce; romp, rampage, go
on a rampage; run wild, run amuck, run riot; break the peace; rush,
tear; rush headlong, rush foremost; raise a storm, make a riot; rough
house [Slang]; riot, storm; wreak, bear down, ride roughshod, out
Herod, Herod; spread like wildfire (person).
[shout or act in anger at something], explode, make a row, kick up
a row; boil, boil over; fume, foam, come on like a lion, bluster, rage,
roar, fly off the handle, go bananas, go ape, blow one’s top, blow
one’s cool, flip one’s lid, hit the ceiling, hit the roof; fly into a
rage (anger) 900.
break out, fly out, burst out; bounce, explode, go off, displode^,
fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, crump^, flash, flare, burst; shock,
strain; break open, force open, prize open.
render violent &c adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite,
annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle,
suscitate^, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate,
convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to
the flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino [Lat.].
explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off, detonize^,
Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle,
bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant.
turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c v.; troublous^,
riotous; tumultuary^, tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious; extravagant;
unmitigated; ravening, inextinguishable, tameless; frenzied &c (insane)
desperate &c (rash) 863; infuriate, furious, outrageous, frantic,
hysteric, in hysterics.
fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient.
savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger.
excited &c v.; unquelled^, unquenched, unextinguished^,
unrepressed, unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable,
immitigable, unmitigable^; uncontrollable, incontrollable^;
insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic, orgasmatic, orgasmic.
spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c v.; volcanic,
meteoric; stormy &c (wind) 349.
Adv. violently &c adj.; amain^; by storm, by force, by main force; with
might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis [Lat.], at the point of the
sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high
hand, through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a
outrance^, a toute outrance [Fr.]; headlong, head foremost.
Phr. furor arma ministrat [Lat.]; blown with restless violence round
about the pendent world [Measure for Measure].

174. Moderation — N. moderation, lenity &c 740; temperateness,
gentleness &c adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c
(inexcitability) 826 [Obs.].
moderating &c v.; anaphrodisia^; relaxation, remission, mitigation,
tranquilization^, assuagement, contemporation^, pacification.
measure, juste milieu [Fr.], golden mean, ariston metron [Gr.].
moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic,
carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk,
opium, poppy or mandragora; wet blanket; palliative.
V. be moderate &c adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass; sober
down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail.
moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy^; attemper^, contemper^;
mollify, lenify^, dulcify^, dull, take off the edge, blunt, obtund^,
sheathe, subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down, smooth down; weaken &c
160; lessen &c (decrease) 36; check palliate.
tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe,
compose, still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober,
pacify, tame, damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate,
rock to sleep, deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket
over, turn off; slake; curb &c (restrain) 751; tame &c (subjugate) 749;
smooth over; pour oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters;
pour balm into, mattre de l’eau dans son vin [Fr.].
go out like a lamb, roar you as gently as any sucking dove
[Midsummer-Night’s Dream].
Adj. moderate; lenient &c 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober,
temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c v.; calm, unruffled,
quiet, tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful,
peaceable; pacific, halcyon.
unexciting, unirritating^; soft, bland, oily, demulcent, lenitive,
anodyne; hypnotic &c 683; sedative; antiorgastic^, anaphrodisiac^.
mild as mother’s milk; milk and water.
Adv. moderately &c adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half
speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason.
Phr. est modue in rebus^; pour oil on troubled waters.


175. Influence — N. influence; importance &c 642; weight, pressure,
preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy^;
ascendency^; dominance, reign; control, domination, pull [Slang];
authority &c 737; capability &c (power) 157; effect &c 154; interest.
synergy (cooperation) 709.
footing; purchase &c (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage
tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage,
V. have influence &c n.; be influential &c adj.; carry weight, weigh,
tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work
upon; take root, take hold; strike root in.
run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh,
over weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be rife &c adj.;
spread like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the
upper hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play.
be recognized, be listened to; make one’s voice heard, gain a
hearing; play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take
the lead, pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one’s weight into the
scale; set the fashion, lead the dance.
Adj. influential, effective; important &c 642; weighty; prevailing &c
v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the
ascendant, hegemonical^.
Adv. with telling effect.
Phr. tel maure tel valet [Fr.].

175a. Absence of Influence — N. impotence &c 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c 172; irrelevancy &c 10.
V. have no influence &c 175.
Adj. uninfluential^, ineffective; inconsequential, nugatory;
unconducing, unconducive, unconducting to^; powerless &c 158; irrelevant
&c 10.

176. Tendency — N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness, proclivity,
bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition, inclination,
propensity, susceptibility; conatus [Lat.], nisus [Lat.]; liability &c
177; quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy^, idiosyncrasy; cast, vein,
grain; humor, mood; drift &c (direction) 278; conduciveness,
conducement^; applicability &c (utility) 644; subservience &c
(instrumentality) 631.
V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to,
trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards;
promote &c (aid) 707.
Adj. tending &c v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to,
calculated to; liable &c 177; subservient &c (instrumental) 631; useful
&c 644; subsidiary &c (helping) 707.
Adv. for, whither.

177. Liability — N. liability, liableness^; possibility, contingency;
susceptivity^, susceptibility, exposure.
V. be liable &c adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance, stand
a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to.
Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c 665; open to, exposed to, obnoxious
to; answerable; unexempt from^; apt to; dependent on; incident to.
contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of,
at the mercy of.


178. Concurrence — N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency^; union;
agreement &c 23; consilience^; consent, coincidence &c (assent) 488;
alliance; concert, additivity, synergy &c 709; partnership &c 712.
common cause.
V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together, join forces, make common cause.
&c (cooperate) 709; help to &c (aid) 707.
keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in
hand with, coincide.
Adj. concurring &c v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with, coinciding.
Adv. with one consent.

179. Counteraction — N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c 14;
antagonism, polarity; clashing &c v.; collision, interference,
inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c
(recoil) 277; counterblast^; neutralization &c (compensation) 30; vis
inertiae [Lat.]; check &c (hindrance) 706.
voluntary opposition &c 708, voluntary resistance &c 719;
repression &c (restraint) 751.
opposites, action and reaction, yang and yin, yang-yin
(contrariety) 14.
V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict
with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against,
militate against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c 708; traverse;
withstand &c (resist) 719; hinder &c 706; repress &c (restrain) 751;
react &c (recoil) 277.
undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c (compensate) 30; overpoise^.
Adj. counteracting &c v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive,
renitent, reactionary; contrary &c 14.
Adv. although &c 30; in spite of &c 708; against.
Phr. for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].




180. [Indefinite space.] Space — N. space, extension, extent,
superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range,
field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.
dimension, length &c 200; distance &c 196; size &c 192; volume;
latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver.
spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage^, margin;
opening, sphere, arena.
open space, free space; void &c (absence) 187; waste; wildness,
wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna^.
abyss &c (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c 105; world;
ubiquity &c (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.
proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches,
hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square
centimeters, square meters, yards (clothing) &c; ares, arpents^.
Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample;
widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c (infinite)
105; shoreless^, trackless, pathless; extended.
Adv. extensively &c adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and
wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the
world, throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in
every quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and
everywhere; from pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus
to the pole [Pope], from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face
of the earth, in the wide world, from all points of the compass; to the
four winds, to the uttermost parts of the earth.

180a. Inextension — N. inextension^, nonextension^, point; dot; atom &c
(smallness) 32.

181. [Definite space.] Region — N. region, sphere, ground, soil, area,
field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit,
circle; reservation, pale &c (limit) 233; compartment, department;
[political divisions: see] (property) &c 780 (Government) &c 737.1
arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel,
inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c
(abode) 189.
clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
biosphere; lithosphere.
Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

182. [Limited space.] Place — N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot; niche,
nook &c (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c (receptacle) 191;
compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square;
abode &c 189; locality &c (situation) 183.
ins and outs; every hole and corner.
Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in
various places, passim.


183. Situation — N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage;
aspect, attitude, posture, pose.
environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c 227
place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings
&c (direction) 278; spot &c (limited space) 182.
topography, geography, chorography^; map &c 554.
V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c n..
Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts, thereabouts,
whereabouts; in place, here, there.
in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in such
and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

184. Location — N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition,
reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading;
establishment, settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c 300.
habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence
&c 227 [Obs.].
anchorage, mooring, encampment.
plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization,
domestication, situation; habitation &c (abode) 189; cohabitation; a
local habitation and a name [Midsummer Night’s Dream]; endenization^,
V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set,
seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish,
fix, pin, root; graft; plant &c (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay
down, deposit, reposit^; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in;
embed, imbed; vest, invest in.
billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket,
put up, bag.
inhabit &c (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root,
strike root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle
down; settle; take up one’s abode, take up one’s quarters; plant
oneself, establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se
nicher [Fr.], bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one’s tent;
put up at, put up one’s horses at; keep house.
endenizen^, naturalize, adopt.
put back, replace &c (restore) 660.
Adj. placed &c v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed^,
rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved^.
moored &c v.; at anchor.

185. Displacement — N. displacement, elocation^, transposition.
ejectment &c 297 [Obs.]; exile &c (banishment) 893; removal &c
(transference) 270.
misplacement, dislocation &c 61; fish out of water.
V. displace, misplace, displant^, dislodge, disestablish; exile &c
(seclude) 893; ablegate^, set aside, remove; take away, cart away; take
off, draft off; lade &c 184.
unload, empty &c (eject) 297; transfer &c 270; dispel.
vacate; depart &c 293.
Adj. displaced &c v.; unplaced, unhoused^, unharbored^, unestablished^,
unsettled; houseless^, homeless; out of place, out of a situation; in
the wrong place.
misplaced, out of its element.


186. Presence — N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c (dispersion) 73.
ubiety^, ubiquity, ubiquitariness^; omnipresence.
bystander &c (spectator) 444.
V. exist in space, be present &c adj.; assister^; make one of, make one
at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show one’s
face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be
people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one’s abode &c (be located) 184; tenant.
resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c v.; moored &c 184; resiant^,
resident, residentiary^; domiciled.
ubiquitous, ubiquitary^; omnipresent; universally present.
peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home, afield;
here there and everywhere &c (space) 180; in presence of, before; under
the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria persona
on the spot; in person, in the flesh.
Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat.] [Seneca].

187. [Nullibiety.1] Absence — N. absence; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.];
nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
emptiness &c adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa
[Lat.]; exemption; hiatus &c (interval) 198; lipotype^.
truant, absentee.
nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive
V. be absent &c adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c 293.
Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.].
empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one’s back.
Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus [Lat.].
absence makes the heart grow fonder [Bayley]; absent in body but
present in spirit [1 Corinthians verse 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse
velit [Lat.] [Propertius]; Achilles absent was Achilles still [Homer];
aux absents les os; briller par son absence [Fr.]; conspicuous by his
absence [Russell]; in the hope to meet shortly again and make our
absence sweet [B.

188. Inhabitant — N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary^; dweller,
indweller^; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate,
tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant^; settler,
squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher,
oppidan^, cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier^,
cotter; compatriot; backsettler^, boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper;
habitant; paying guest; planter.
native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones^; Englishman, John Bull;
newcomer &c (stranger) 57.
aboriginal, American^, Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck
[Slang], downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman,
Welshman, Uncle Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.
garrison, crew; population; people &c (mankind) 372; colony,
settlement; household; mir^.
V. inhabit &c (be present) 186; endenizen &c (locate oneself) 184
Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal^, autochthonous; British;
English; American^; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic;
domiciliated^, domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated;
in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode — N. abode, dwelling,
lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address,
habitation, where one’s lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings,
seat, lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance^,
tabernacle, throne, ark.
home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall^; fireside; hearth,
hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem, seraglio,
zenana^; household gods, lares et penates [Lat.], roof, household,
housing, dulce domum [Lat.], paternal domicile; native soil, native
habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere;
environment, ecological niche.
nest, nidus, snuggery^; arbor, bower, &c 191; lair, den, cave,
hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum [Lat.], aerie, eyrie, eyry^,
rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification;
kala jagah^.
bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation^; barrack,
casemate^, casern^.
tent &c (covering) 223; building &c (construction) 161; chamber &c
(receptacle) 191; xenodochium^.
tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft^.
cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy^,
shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn^;
kennel, sty, doghold^, cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed;
stable, dovecote, columbary^, columbarium; shippen^; igloo, iglu^,
jacal^; lacustrine dwelling^, lacuslake dwelling^, lacuspile dwelling^;
log cabin, log house; shack, shebang [Slang], tepee, topek^.
house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus
in urbe [Lat.], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion,
hotel, court, manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk,
bungalow; casa [Sp.], country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame
house, shingle house, tenement house; temple &c 1000.
hamlet, village, thorp^, dorp^, ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town,
city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town,
county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.
street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda^, board walk,
embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd
[Scot.], close [Scot.], yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.
square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade,
colonnade, peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of
buildings, market place, place, plaza.
anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port,
quarter, parish &c (region) 181.
assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn;
hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow^, khan,
hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace;
bar, bar room; barrel house [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club,
clubhouse; cookshop^, dive [U.S.], exchange [Euph.]; grill room, saloon
[U.S.], shebeen^; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant,
buffet, cafe, estaminet^, posada^; almshouse^, poorhouse, townhouse
garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance^, demesne.
[quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary;
barn, stall; zoo.
V. take up one’s abode &c (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c (be present)
Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic;
domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.
Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth [G.]; even cities have their graves
[Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria [Lat.]; home sweet home.

190. [Things contained.] Contents — N. contents; cargo, lading,
freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload^, shipload; cup of,
basket of, &c (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c 221; stuffing, ullage.

191. Receptacle — N. receptacle; inclosure &c 232; recipient,
receiver, reservatory.
compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess,
nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c (concavity) 252.
capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder;
pericarp, udder.
stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard,
breadbasket; mouth.
pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack,
saccule, wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack,
sachel, satchel, reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box;
housewife, hussif; saddlebags; portfolio; quiver &c (magazine) 636.
chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk,
bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip
sack [U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger,
vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket,
pannier, buck-basket, hopper, maund^, creel, cran, crate, cradle,
bassinet, wisket, whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser,
dorser, tray, hod, scuttle, utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.
[For liquids] cistern &c (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask,
drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin,
carboy, amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock,
kit, canteen, flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial,
phial, cruet, caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig
gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel,
pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass,
receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin,
jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn,
saucepan, skillet, posnet^, tureen.
[laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask,
Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube,
culture tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe,
vial, carboy, vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge
bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti,
lota, mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.
plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager,
saucer, pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics.
compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar bowl, butter dish, mug,
pitcher, punch bowl, chafing dish.
shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch
glass, thimble.
closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin,
bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of
drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire^, secretary,
secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire,
etagere, vargueno, vitrine.
chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium;
suite of rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor;
by-room, cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping
room, drawing room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet,
closet; pew, box; boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory;
refectory, dining room, salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library,
study; studio; billiard room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum,
[room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet,
lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places]
men’s room, ladies’ room, rest room; [fixtures] (uncleanness). 653
attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold,
cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground
floor, rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana,
scullery, offices; storeroom &c (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy,
coach house; garage; hangar; outhouse; penthouse; lean-to.
portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace,
deck; lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage,
breezeway; ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza, veranda.
conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove,
grotto, hermitage.
lodging &c (abode) 189; bed &c (support) 215; carriage &c
(vehicle) 272.
Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic,
vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular,
polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.



192. Size — N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness &c
adj.; greatness &c (of quantity) 31; expanse &c (space) 180; amplitude,
mass; proportions.
capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.
turgidity &c (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c
adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.
hugeness &c adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.
giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua,
monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth,
leviathan, elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk,
block, loaf, mass, swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper,
spanker, strapper; Triton among the minnows [Coriolanus].
mountain, mound; heap &c (assemblage) 72.
largest portion &c 50; full size, life size.
V. be large &c adj.; become large &c (expand) 194.
Adj. large, big; great &c (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky,
voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious
&c 180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.
corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty,
strapping, bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed,
gram fed; stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good
condition; in condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.
lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking,
whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c
(swollen) 194.
huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous,
stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine,
jumbo, mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic;
prodigious, colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque,
Herculean, Gargantuan; infinite &c 105.
large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a
pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.
immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable,
unimaginable, unheard-of.
of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, teh
granddaddy of all.

193. Littleness — N. littleness &c adj.; smallness &c (of quantity)
32; exiguity, inextension^; parvitude^, parvity^; duodecimo^; Elzevir
edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c
dwarf, pygmy, pigmy^, Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon^, urchin, elf;
atomy^, dandiprat^; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o’-my-thumb^; manikin,
mannikin; homunculus, dapperling^, cock-sparrow.
animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet^, fly, midge, gnat, shrimp,
minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon^; bacteria; infusoria^; microzoa
[Micro.]; phytozoaria^; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small
fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand;
molehill, button, bubble.
point; atom &c (small quantity) 32; fragment &c (small part) 51;
powder &c 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c
(unimportance) 643.
micrometer; vernier; scale.
microphotography, photomicrography, micrography^; photomicrograph,
microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical instruments) 445.
V. be little &c adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c (decrease) 36,
(contract) 195.
Adj. little; small &c (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive,
microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c (unimportant) 643; exiguous,
puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin^, miniature, pygmy, pigmy^, elfin;
undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp,
cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative^, portable;
duodecimo^; dumpy, squat; short &c 201.
impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible,
inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal,
homoeopathic^; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary,
rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.
weazen^, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c (narrow) 203; granular &c
(powdery) 330; shrunk &c 195; brevipennate^.
Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely,

194. Expansion — N. expansion; increase of size &c 35; enlargement,
extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation^; aggrandizement,
spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation,
rarefaction; turgescence^, turgidness, turgidity; dispansion^; obesity
&c (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus [Med.]; dropsy,
tumefaction, intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension;
puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation^.
dilatability, expansibility.
germination, growth, upgrowth^; accretion &c 35; budding,
overgrowth, overdistension^; hypertrophy, tympany^.
bulb &c (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.
[expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant.
V. become larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, widen, enlarge, extend,
grow, increase, incrassate^, swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open
order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring
up; bud, bourgeon [Fr.], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate,
pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread
like wildfire, overrun.
be larger than; surpass &c (be superior) 33.
render larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, spread, extend,
aggrandize, distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify,
rarefy, inflate, puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.
Adj. expanded, &c v.; larger, &c (large) &c 192; swollen; expansive;
wide open, wide spread; flabelliform^; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated,
fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag
bellied^; edematous, oedematous^, obese, puffy, pursy^, blowzy,
bigswoln^, distended; patulous; bulbous &c (convex) 250; full blown,
full grown, full formed; big &c 192; abdominous^, enchymatous^,
rhipidate^; tumefacient^, tumefying^.

195. Contraction — N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease of
size &c 36; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c v.;
compaction; tabes^, collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction^,
consumption, marasmus^, atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass.
condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c 596;
squeezing &c v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents,
sclerotics; contractility, compressibility; coarctation^.
inferiority in size.
V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c 36; grow less,
dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose
flesh, wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c (deteriorate) 659.
be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c (be inferior)
render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow,
coarctate^; boil down; constrict, constringe^; condense, compress,
squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up,
pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf^;
shorten &c 201; circumscribe &c 229; restrain &c 751.
[reduce in size by abrasion or paring. ] (subtraction) 38 abrade,
pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind,
grind down, chip, shave, shear, wear down.
Adj. contracting &c v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c v.;
strangulated, tabid^, wizened, stunted; waning &c v.; neap, compact.
unexpanded &c (expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; contractile; compressible;
smaller &c (small) &c 193.

196. Distance — N. distance; space &c 180; remoteness, farness^, far-
cry to; longinquity^, elongation; offing, background; remote region;
removedness^; parallax; reach, span, stride.
outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule
[Lat.], ne plus ultra [Lat.], antipodes; long range, giant’s stride.
dispersion &c 73.
[units of distance] length &c 200.
cosmic distance, light-years.
V. be distant &c adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go
to, get to, stretch away to; range.
remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear
of, stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep
one’s distance.
distance; distance oneself from.
Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of;
stretching to &c v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine^, transpontine^,
transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane^;
hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached^,
unapproachable; incontiguous^.
Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a
great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out
of the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond;
outre mer [Fr.], over the border, far and wide, over the hills and far
away [Gay]; from pole to pole &c (over great space) 180; to the
uttermost parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows
where, a perte de vue [Fr.], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a
far cry to.
apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo [It];
at arm’s length.
Phr. distance lends enchantment [Campbell]; it’s a long long way to
Tipperary; out of sight, out of mind.

197. Nearness — N. nearness &c adj.; proximity, propinquity; vicinity,
vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c 199.
short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters,
stone’s throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair’s breadth, span.
purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours [Fr.],
suburbs, confines, banlieue^, borderland; whereabouts.
bystander; neighbor, borderer^.
approach &c 286; convergence &c 290; perihelion.
V. be near &c adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge
upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp,
hug; huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.
touch &c 199; bring near, draw near &c 286; converge &c 290; crowd
&c 72; place side by side &c adv..
Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring;
bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal;
at hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.
Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at
the point of; next door to; within reach, within call, within hearing,
within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far from, at no great
distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts of; in the
environs &c n.; at one’s door, at one’s feet, at one’s elbow, at one’s
finger’s end, at one’s side; on the tip of one’s tongue; under one’s
nose; within a stone’s throw &c n.; in sight of, in presence of; at
close quarters; cheek by jole^, cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side
by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c (touching) 199; yardarm to
yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold,
bordering upon, verging to; in the way.
about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers;
approximately, approximatively^; as good as, well-nigh.

198. Interval — N. interval, interspace^; separation &c 44; break, gap,
opening; hole &c 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption,
interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime,
creek, cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure^, rift, flaw,
breach, rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.
gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet,
frith^, strait, gully; pass; furrow &c 259; abra^; barranca^, barranco^;
clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime
[Lat.], hiatus valde deflendus [Lat.]; parenthesis &c (interjacence)
228 [Obs.]; void &c (absence) 187; incompleteness &c 53.
[interval of time] period &c 108; interim (time) 106.
V. gape &c (open) 260.
Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy^, rimose^, rimulose^.
Adv. at intervals &c (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo [It].

199. Contiguity — N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal^, juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse^,
rencontre^, rencounter^, syzygy [Astr.], coincidence, coexistence;
adhesion &c 46; touching &c v.. (touch) 379.
borderland; frontier &c (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
V. be contiguous &c adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c
[cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite) 43; link
(vinculum) 45.
Adj. contiguous; touching &c v.; in contact &c n.; conterminous, end to
end, osculatory; pertingent^; tangential.
hand to hand; close to &c (near) 197; with no interval &c 198.


200. Length — N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c 196.
line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
lengthening &c v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure^; extension.
[Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit,
yard, ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link;
arpent^, handbreadth^, jornada [U.S.], kos^, vara^.
[astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-
year, parsec.
[metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer,
millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.
pedometer, perambulator; scale &c (measurement) 466.
V. be long &c adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, drag its slow length along.
render long &c adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out^; drawl.
enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
distend (expand) 194.
Adj. long, longsome^; lengthy, wiredrawn^, outstretched; lengthened &c
v.; sesquipedalian &c (words) 577; interminable, no end of;
linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c
(shorten) &c 201 [Obs.].
Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong^, along; tandem; in
a line &c (continuously) 69; in perspective.
from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the
crown of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and

201. Shortness — N. shortness &c adj.; brevity; littleness &c 193; a
shortening &c v.; abbreviation, abbreviature^; abridgment,
concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation^; reduction &c
(contraction) 195; epitome &c (compendium) 596.
elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c (in style) 572.
abridger, epitomist^, epitomizer^.
V. be short &c adj.; render short &c adj.; shorten, curtail, abridge,
abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c (contract) 195; epitomize &c
retrench, cut short, obtruncate^; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew;
cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap,
crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of;
foreshorten (in drawing).
Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn,
stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate^; retrousse^;
stocky; squab, squabby^; squat, dumpy; little &c 193; curtailed of its
fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c 572; summary.
Adv. shortly &c adj.; in short &c (concisely) 572.

202. Breadth, Thickness, — N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c (space) 180.
thickness, crassitude^; corpulence &c (size) 192; dilation &c
(expansion) 194.
V. be broad &c adj.; become broad, render broad &c adj.; expand &c 194;
thicken, widen, calibrate.
Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous^; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; wide as a church-door [Romeo and Juliet]; latifoliate^,
thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

203. Narrowness. Thinness — N. narrowness &c adj.; closeness, exility^;
exiguity &c (little) 193.
line; hair’s breadth, finger’s breadth; strip, streak, vein.
monolayer; epitaxial deposition [Eng.].
thinness &c adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency^, marcor^.
shaving, slip &c (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow,
anatomy, spindleshanks^, lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.
middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp,
hourglass; ridge, ghaut^, ghat^, pass; ravine &c 198.
narrowing, coarctation^, angustation^, tapering; contraction &c
V. be narrow &c adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c 195; render narrow &c
adj.; waste away.
Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c (filament) 205;
finespun^, gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant,
scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious^; contracted &c 195; unexpanded &c
(expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; slender as a thread.
[in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager,
gaunt, macilent^; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky [U.S.];
starved, starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake
[Chaucer]; thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer;
hatchet-faced; lantern-jawed.
attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid^, marcid^, barebone,

204. Layer — N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone, substratum,
substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment; table,
tablet; dess^; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.
plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel;
coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive^, cut, rasher,
shaving, integument &c (covering) 223; eschar^.
stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.
monolayer; bilayer; trilayer [Bioch.].
V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover &c
Adj. lamellar, lamellated^, lamelliform^, layered; laminated,
laminiferous^; micaceous^; schistose, schistous^; scaly, filmy,
membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous [Anat.]; foliated, foliaceous^;
stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic^, spathose^.

205. Filament — N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle^, vein; hair,
capillament^, cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril, gossamer; hair
stroke; veinlet^, venula^, venule^.
wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine,
twist, whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.
strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon,
riband, roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.
beard &c (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.
Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous^, filaceous^, filiform^; fibrous,
fibrillous^; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform^;
funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform^; flagelliform^; hairy &c (rough)
256; taeniate^, taeniform^, taenioid^; venose^, venous.

206. Height — N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch;
loftiness &c adj.; sublimity.
tallness &c adj.; stature, procerity^; prominence &c 250.
colossus &c (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.
mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle^, fell, knap^;
cape; headland, foreland^; promontory; ridge, hog’s back, dune; rising
ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands;
heights &c (summit) 210; knob, loma^, pena [U.S.], picacho^, tump^;
knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff,
craig^, tor^, peak, pike, clough^; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy
tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret,
campanile, turret, dome, cupola; skyscraper.
pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.
ceiling &c (covering) 223.
high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.
altimetry &c (angel) 244 [Obs.]; batophobia^.
satellite, spy-in-the-sky.
V. be high &c adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly over;
orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend,
beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c 223; overtop
&c (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.
become high &c adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow^; rise &c
(ascend) 305; send into orbit.
render high &c adj.; heighten &c (elevate) 307.
Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c (big)
192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging (gardens);
elevated &c 307; upper; highest &c (topmost) 210; high reaching,
insessorial^, perching.
upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine,
subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt^, cloudcapt^, cloudtouching^;
overhanging &c v.; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent^,
supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c v. 250.
tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c
(thin) 203.
Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind^;
upstairs, abovestairs^; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the
shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.
over, upwards; from top to bottom &c (completely) 52.
Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto [It].

207. Lowness — N. lowness &c adj.; debasement, depression, prostration
&c (horizontal) 213; depression &c (concave) 252.
molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee
[Fr.]; cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels.
low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.
V. be low &c adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch, wallow,
grovel; lower &c (depress) 308.
Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the
ground; lying low &c v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c
(horizontal) 213.
Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown^, at the foot
of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb;
below par.

208. Depth — N. depth; deepness &c adj.; profundity, depression &c
(concavity) 252.
hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c 198; bowels of the
earth, botttomless pit^, hell.
soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet,
sound, probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
[instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar;
V. be deep &c adj.; render deep &c adj.; deepen.
plunge &c 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the
lead, take soundings, make soundings; dig &c (excavate) 252.
Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene^;
bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable;
abysmal; deep as a well; bathycolpian^; benthal^, benthopelagic^;
downreaching^, yawning.
knee deep, ankle deep.
Adv. beyond one’s depth, out of one’s depth; over head and ears; mark
twine, mark twain.

209. Shallowness — N. shallowness &c adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one’s feet; shoal, shoaly^.

210. Summit — N. summit, summity^; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra,
height, pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point,
turning point; turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water
parting; sky, pole.
tip, tip top; crest, crow’s nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c 67;
crown, brow; head, nob^, noddle^, pate; capsheaf^.
high places, heights.
topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus^, capital,
epistyle^, sconce, pediment, entablature^; tympanum; ceiling &c
(covering) 223.
attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
[metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement,
peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys (in graphs).
V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c (be superior to) 33.
Adj. highest &c (high) &c 206; top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c v.; meridian, meridional^; capital, head, polar, supreme,
supernal, topgallant.
Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
Phr. en flute; fleur deau [Fr.].

211. Base — N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard,
mopboard^; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c (support) 215;
substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag,
carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.
bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.
Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on,
grounded on, built on.

212. Verticality — N. verticality; erectness &c adj.; perpendicularity
&c 216.1; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
wall, precipice, cliff.
elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
V. be vertical &c adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
render vertical &c adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up;
erect, rear, raise on its legs.
Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c
Adv. vertically &c adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a plomb
[Fr.], endwise; one one’s legs; at right angles.

213. Horizontality — N. horizontality^; flatness; level, plane; stratum
&c 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
recumbency, lying down &c v.; reclination^, decumbence^;
decumbency^, discumbency^; proneness &c adj.; accubation^, supination^,
resupination^, prostration; azimuth.
plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet
ground, croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade^, esplanade,
[flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain)
[instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.
V. be horizontal &c adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat, lie
prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
render horizontal &c adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c 251; flat as a billiard
table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent^; lying &c v.; prone,
supine, couchant, jacent^, prostrate, recubant^.
Adv. horizontally &c adj.; on one’s back, on all fours, on its beam

214. Pendency — N. pendency^, dependency; suspension, hanging &c v.;
pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony
tail, pendulum; hangnail peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring,
staple, tenterhook; fastening &c 45; spar, horse.
V. be pendent &c adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag; daggle^, flap,
trail, flow; beetle.
suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c v.; loose,
having a peduncle &c n.; pedunculate^, tailed, caudate.

215. Support — N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra
firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib^; point d’appui [Fr.],
pou sto [Gr.], purchase footing, hold, locus standi [Lat.]; landing
place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place;
groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c
(basement) 211.
supporter; aid &c 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment^; cue rest,
jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper;
stirrup, stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit^,
outrigger; ratlings^.
staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle^; bourdon^,
cowlstaff^, lathi^, mahlstick^.
post, pillar, shaft, thill^, column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle;
pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle^, zocle^; buttress, jamb, mullion,
abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone;
upright; door post, jamb, door jamb.
frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder,
lintel, joist, travis^, trave^, corner stone, summer, transom; rung,
round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion^;
crown post, king post; vertebra.
columella^, backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch,
trunnion, pivot, rowlock^; peg &c (pendency) 214 [Obs.]; tiebeam &c
(fastening) 45; thole pin^.
board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet^, trivet, arbor, rack;
mantel, mantle piece [Fr.], mantleshelf^; slab, console; counter,
dresser; flange, corbel; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel,
desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy^.
seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud^; chair, bench, form, stool,
sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair;
couch, fauteuil [Fr.], woolsack^, ottoman, settle, squab, bench;
aparejo^, faldstool^, horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair;
lamba chauki^, lamba kursi^; saddle, pannel^, pillion; side saddle, pack
saddle; pommel.
bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown,
trucklebed^, cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French
bed, bunk, kip, palang^; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse^;
pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion.
footstool, hassock; tabouret^; tripod, monopod.
Atlas, Persides, Atlantes^, Caryatides, Hercules.
V. be supported &c; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on, rest
on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c;
have at one’s back; bestride, bestraddle^.
support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up,
bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear^; prop; under prop, under pin,
under set; riprap; bandage &c 43.
give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support,
lend support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford
foundations, supply foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base,
ground, imbed, embed.
maintain, keep on foot; aid &c 707.
Adj. supporting, supported &c v.; fundamental; dorsigerous^.
Adv. astride on, straddle.

216. Parallelism — N. {ant.
216a} parallelism; coextension^; equidistance^; similarity &c 17.
Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
Adv. alongside &c (laterally) 236.

216a. Perpendicularity — N. {ant.
216} perpendicularity, orthogonality; verticality, &c 212.
V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be
rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have no
Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

217. Obliquity — N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant, crookedness
&c adj.; slopeness^; leaning &c v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list, twist,
swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c 243; bend &c (curve) 245; tower of
acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd^, rising ground, hill,
bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity^; gentle slope, rapid
slope, easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe
[Fr.]; facilis descensus averni [Lat.].
V. intersect; lack parallelism.

218. Inversion — N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion,
retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c 237 [Obs.]; contrariety
&c 14; reversal; turn of the tide.
overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset^; culbute^; revulsion;
transposition, transposal^, anastrophy^, metastasis, hyperbaton^,
anastrophe^, hysteron proteron [Gr.], hypallage^, synchysis^, tmesis^,
parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome.
pronation and supination [Anat.].
V. be inverted &c; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about, go
round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel
to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over;
capsize, turn turtle.
invert, subvert, retrovert^, introvert; reverse; up turn, over
turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c adj.; culbuter^; transpose,
put the cart before the horse, turn the tables.
Adj. inverted &c v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out, upside
down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one’s head, topsy-turvy,
sens dessus dessous [Fr.].
inverse; reverse &c (contrary) 14; opposite &c 237.
top heavy.
Adv. inversely &c adj.; hirdy-girdy^; heels over head, head over heels.

219. Crossing — N. crossing &c v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation^, transversion^; convolution &c 248; level crossing.
reticulation, network; inosculation^, anastomosis, intertexture^,
net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker;
mat, matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille,
gridiron, tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes^;
cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat’s cradle, knot; entangle &c
(disorder) 59.
[woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c
V. cross, decussate^; intersect, interlace, intertwine, intertwist^,
interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
twine, entwine, weave, inweave^, twist, wreathe; anastomose [Med.],
inosculate^, dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.
mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel;
net, knot; dishevel, raddle^.
Adj. crossing &c v.; crossed, matted &c, v.. transverse.
cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform^, reticular, reticulated;
areolar^, cancellated^, grated, barred, streaked; textile; crossbarred^,
cruciate^, palmiped^, secant; web-footed.
Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

1. General.

220. Exteriority — N. exteriority^; outside, exterior; surface,
superficies; skin &c (covering) 223; superstratum^; disk, disc; face,
facet; extrados^.
excentricity^; eccentricity; circumjacence &c 227 [Obs.].
V. be exterior &c adj.; lie around &c 227.
place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn
Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c 227; extramural; extralimitary^, extramundane.
superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
extraregarding^; excentric^, eccentric; outstanding; extrinsic &c
6; ecdemic [Med.], exomorphic^.
Adv. externally &c adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros [Lat.].
in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio [Lat.]; a la belle etoile
[Fr.], al fresco.

221. Interiority — N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace^,
subsoil, substratum; intrados.
contents &c 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c (center)
222; heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels,
belly, intestines, guts, chitterings^, womb, lap; penetralia [Lat.],
recesses, innermost recesses; cave &c (concavity) 252.
V. be inside &c adj.; within &c adv.. place within, keep within;
inclose &c (circumscribe) 229; intern; imbed &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding^; inmost,
innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland;
subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic [Physio.]; interstitial
&c (interjacent) 228 [Obs.]; inwrought &c (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c
v.. home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.
Adv. internally &c adj.; inwards, within, in, inly^; here in, there in,
where in; ab intra, withinside^; in doors, within doors; at home, in the
bosom of one’s family.

222. Centrality — N. centrality, centricalness^, center; middle &c 68;
focus &c 74.
core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull’s eye;
nave, navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral
column; hotbed; concentration &c (convergence) 290; centralization;
center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion,
center of oscillation, center of buoyancy &c; metacenter^.
V. be central &c adj.; converge &c 290.
render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
Adj. central, centrical^; middle &c 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian^; spinal, vertebral.
Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c adj..

223. Covering — N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino^, baldaquin^;
canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d’abri [Fr.], umbrella,
parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c (defense) 717.
roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile^; tiling, slates,
slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [U.S.], tiling,
shed &c (abode) 189.
top, lid, covercle^, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].
bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil^, finger stall.
coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug,
drugget^; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah^, pillowcase,
pillowslip^; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [U.S.],
apishamore [U.S.].
integument, tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather,
shagreen^, hide; pelt, peltry^; cordwain^; derm^; robe, buffalo robe
[U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.
clothing &c 225; mask &c (concealment) 530.
peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell,
capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca^;
elytron^; elytrum^; involucrum [Lat.]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope,
vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology;
inunction^; incrustation, superimposition, superposition,
obduction^; scale &c (layer) 204.
[specific coverings] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver plate,
gold plate, copper plate; engobe^; ormolu; Sheffield plate; pavement;
coating, paint; varnish &c (resin) 216.1; plating, barrel plating,
anointing &c v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition [Eng.], vapor deposition;
ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement; ointment
&c (grease) 356.
V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c 225;
encase, incase^; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind;
bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.].
coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar;
wash; besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer,
lacker^, enamel, whitewash; parget^; lay it on thick.
overlie, overarch^; endome^; conceal &c 528.
[of aluminum] anodize.
[of steel] galvanize.
Adj. covering &c v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c v.; cutaneous,
dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary^, skinny, scaly, squamous
[Anat.]; covered &c v.; imbricated, loricated^, armor plated, ironclad;
under cover; cowled, cucullate^, dermatoid^, encuirassed^, hooded,
squamiferous^, tectiform^; vaginate^.

224. Lining — N. lining, inner coating; coating &c (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagmite.
filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
wainscot, parietes [Lat.], wall.
V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
Adj. lined &c v..

225. Clothing — N. clothing, investment; covering &c 223; dress,
raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim;
habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament^, apparel,
wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes.
array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c (ornament) 847; full dress
&c (show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.
outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals
[U.S.]; canonicals &c 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out,
accouterment, caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs,
toggery^; day wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade.
dishabille, morning dress, undress.
kimono; lungi^; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes;
mourning, weeds; duds; slippers.
robe, tunic, paletot^, habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga,
smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat^, sack coat,
tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.
cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua^, shawl, pelisse, wrapper;
veil; cape, tippet, kirtle^, plaid, muffler, comforter, haik^, huke^,
chlamys^, mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous,
roquelaure^; houppelande [Fr.]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout
[Fr.], spencer^; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P-coat,
dreadnought, wraprascal^, poncho, cardinal, pelerine^; barbe^, chudder^,
jubbah^, oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma jacket^, vest, jerkin,
waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; farthingale, kilt, jupe^,
crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron, pinafore; bloomer, bloomers;
chaqueta^, songtag [G.], tablier^.
pants, trousers, trowsers^; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles^,
overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan^; shorts, jockey shorts,
boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables; knickers,
knickerbockers; philibeg^, fillibeg^; pants suit; culottes; jeans, blue
jeans, dungarees, denims.
[brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour,
Gloria Vanderbilt.
headdress, headgear; chapeau [Fr.], crush hat, opera hat;
kaffiyeh; sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh^, topi, sola topi
[Lat.], pagri^, puggaree^; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor,
bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock^, wimple; nightcap, mobcap^,
skullcap; hood, coif; capote^, calash; kerchief, snood, babushka; head,
coiffure; crown &c (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke,
periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako^, busby; kepi^, forage cap,
bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c 717; mask, domino.
body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark^, smock,
shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt;
bedgown^, sac de nuit [Fr.].
underclothes [underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip [for
women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice,
girdle &c (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat;
jock [for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap.
sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest.
neckerchief, neckcloth^; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock,
handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal^, rabat^.
shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche^, galoshes, patten,
clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot,
wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral^; arctics,
bootee, bootikin^, brogan, chaparajos^; chavar^, chivarras^, chivarros^;
gums [U.S.], larrigan [U.S.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy^, veldtschoen
[G.], legging, buskin, greave^, galligaskin^, gamache^, gamashes^,
moccasin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash^, brogue, antigropelos^;
stocking, hose, gaskins^, trunk hose, sock; hosiery.
glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.
swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta.
pocket handkerchief, hanky^, hankie.
clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress^, snip;
dressmaker, habitmaker^, breechesmaker^, shoemaker; Crispin; friseur
[Fr.]; cordwainer^, cobbler, hosier^, hatter; draper, linen draper,
haberdasher, mercer.
[underpants for babies] diaper, nappy [Brit.]; disposable diaper,
cloth diaper; [brand names for diapers], Luvs Huggies.
V. invest; cover &c 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap^, enwrap; wrap;
fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe, swaddle,
roll up in, circumvest.
vest, clothe, array, dress, dight^, drape, robe, enrobe, attire,
apparel, accounter^, rig, fit out; deck &c (ornament) 847; perk, equip,
harness, caparison.
wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.
Adj. invested &c v.; habited; dighted^; barbed, barded; clad, costume,
shod, chausse [Fr.]; en grande tenue &c (show) 882 [Fr.].
Phr. the soul of this man is his clothes [All’s Well].

226. Divestment — N. divestment; taking off &c v.. nudity; bareness &c
adj.; undress; dishabille &c 225; the altogether; nudation^, denudation;
decortication, depilation, excoriation, desquamation; molting;
exfoliation; trichosis [Med.].
V. divest; uncover &c (cover) &c 223; denude, bare, strip; disfurnish^;
undress, disrobe &c (dress, enrobe) &c 225; uncoif^; dismantle; put off,
take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate, excoriate, skin,
scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast the skin.
Adj. divested &c v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded;
exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.
in a state of nature, in nature’s garb, in the buff, in native
buff, in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus [Lat.]; with nothing on,
stark naked, stark raving naked [Joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the
back of one’s hand; out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked;
leafless, napless^, hairless.

227. Circumjacence — N. circumjacence^, circumambience^; environment,
encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.
outpost; border &c (edge) 231; girdle &c (circumference) 230;
outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs^,
environs, entourage, banlieue^; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.
V. lie around &c adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ,
inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt;
begird, engird^; skirt, twine round; hem in &c (circumscribe) 229.
Adj. circumjacent, circumambient^, circumfluent^; ambient; surrounding
&c v.; circumferential, suburban.
Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and
left, all round, round about.

228. Interposition — N. interposition, interjacence^, intercurrence^,
intervenience^, interlocation^, interdigitation, interjection,
interpolation, interlineation, interspersion, intercalation.
[interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration;
permeation; infiltration.
[interposition by one person in another’s affairs, at the
intervenor’s initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion,
obtrusion; insinuation.
insertion &c 300; dovetailing; embolism.
intermediary, intermedium^; go between, bodkin^, intruder,
interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.
partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment^; party wall,
panel, room divider.
halfway house.
V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in,
interpenetrate, permeate.
put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam
in, worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject,
intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse,
interweave, interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in;
let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate,
interfere, put in an oar, thrust one’s nose in; intrude, obtrude;
have a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust
in &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interjacent^, intercurrent^, intervenient^, intervening &c v.,
intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal^.
parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed^;
Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid, midst;
in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthetically,
obiter dictum.

229. Circumscription — N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure;
confinement &c (restraint) 751; circumvallation^; encincture; envelope
&c 232.
container (receptacle) 191.
V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c 227;
compass about; imprison &c (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in;
fence round, fence in, hedge round; picket; corral.
enfold, bury, encase, incase^, pack up, enshrine, inclasp^; wrap up
&c (invest) 225; embay^, embosom^.
containment (inclusion) 76.
Adj. circumscribed &c v.; begirt^, lapt^; buried in, immersed in;
embosomed^, in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c
751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

230. Outline — N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery, ambit,
circuit, lines tournure^, contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast
zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre [Brit.],
cingle^, clasp, girt; cordon &c (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c 247.

231. Edge — N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces;
lip, muzzle.
threshold, door, porch; portal &c (opening) 260; coast, shore.
frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting,
hem, selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.
Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated^, marginated^.

232. Inclosure — N. inclosure, envelope; case &c (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c 230.
pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation^, enceinte, ring fence.
barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door,
hatch, cordon; prison &c 752.
dike, dyke, ditch, fosse^, moat.
V. inclose, circumscribe &c 229.

233. Limit — N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone^, but, pale, reservation; termination, terminus;
stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.
boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of
circumvallation^; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus
ultra [Lat.]; sluice, floodgate.
Adj. definite; conterminate^, conterminable^; terminal, frontier;
Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.
Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.
2. Special

234. Front — N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk, disc,
frontage; facade, proscenium, facia [Lat.], frontispiece; anteriority^;
obverse (of a medal or coin).
fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost;
first line; scout.
brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz^, countenance, mut
[Slang]; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore^, jib.
pioneer &c (precursor) 64; metoposcopy^.
V. be in front, stand in front &c adj.; front, face, confront; bend
forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.
Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.
Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead;
forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one’s
face, before one’s eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.
Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat.] [Syrus]; frons est animi janua
[Lat.] [Cicero]; Human face divine [Milton]; imago animi vultus est
indices oculi [Lat.] [Cicero]; sea of upturned faces [Scott].

235. Rear — N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, hinterland.
occiput [Anat.], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock,
posteriors, backside scut^, breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region, lumbar
region; hind quarters; aitchbone^; natch, natch bone.
stern, poop, afterpart^, heelpiece^, crupper.
wake; train &c (sequence) 281.
reverse; other side of the shield.
V. be behind &c adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost^; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal^.
Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one’s back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost^, aback, rearward.
Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio [It]; the other side of the coin.

236. Laterality — N. laterality^; side, flank, quarter, lee; hand;
cheek, jowl, jole^, wing; profile; temple, parietes [Lat.], loin,
haunch, hip; beam.
gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
V. be on one side &c adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental,
Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast, alongside,
beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c (near)
197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c adj.; right and left; on her
beam ends.
Phr. his cheek the may of days outworn [Shakespeare].

237. Contraposition — N. contraposition^, opposition; polarity;
inversion &c 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart;
antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.
antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.
V. be opposite &c adj.; subtend.
Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal, subcontrary^;
fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral,
Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

238. Dextrality — N. dextrality^; right, right hand; dexter, offside,
Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal^, dextrorse^;
ambidextral^, ambidextrous; dextro-.
Adv. dextrad^, dextrally^.

239. Sinistrality — N. sinistrality^; left, left hand, a gauche;
sinister, nearside^, larboard, port.
Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal^, sinistrorse^,
sinistrous^; laevo- [Pref.].
Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously^.



240. Form — N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration; make,
formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one’s
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c (outline) 230;
structure &c 329; plasmature^.
feature, lineament, turn; phase &c (aspect) 448; posture,
attitude, pose.
[Science of form] morphism.
[Similarity of form] isomorphism.
forming &c v.; formation, figuration, efformation^; sculpture;
V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform^, carve, cut, chisel, hew, cast;
rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick into
shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold,
sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c (construct) 161.
Adj. formed &c v.. [Receiving form] plastic, fictile^; formative; fluid.
[Giving form] plasmic^.
[Similar in form] isomorphous.
[taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c 149.

241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism — N. amorphism^, informity^; unlicked
cub^; rudis indigestaque moles [Lat.]; disorder &c 59; deformity &c 243.
disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.
[taking form from surroundings] fluid &c 333.
V. deface [Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c 61; blemish, mar.
Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn^, unfashioned^,
unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous, rugged.

242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry — N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c 845; proportion, eurythmy^, uniformity, parallelism;
bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral symmetry;
centrality &c 222.
arborescence^, branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c 27; parallel, coextensive.
arborescent^, arboriform^; dendriform^, dendroid^; branching;
ramous^, ramose; filiciform^, filicoid^; subarborescent^;
fuji-shaped, fujigata [Jap.].

243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion — N. distortion, detortion^,
contortion; twist, crookedness &c (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity;
malformation, malconformation^; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion^,
want of symmetry, anamorphosis^; ugliness &c 846; talipes^; teratology.
asymmetry; irregularity.
V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform,
Adj. distorted &c v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric, unsymmetric^,
awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump^,
deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned^, ill
proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous, crooked as a ram’s horn;
camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch backed, crook backed;
bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock kneed; splay footed,
club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed of one’s fair
proportions; stumpy &c (short) 201; gaunt &c (thin) 203; bloated &c
194; scalene; simous^; taliped^, talipedic^.
Adv. all manner of ways.
Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].


244. Angularity — N. angularity, angularness^; aduncity^; angle, cusp,
bend; fold &c 258; notch &c 257; fork, bifurcation.
elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke,
scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo^, akimbo.
corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel [Arch.], coign^.
right angle &c (perpendicular) 216.1, 212; obliquity &c 217; angle
of 45 degrees, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle,
reentering angle, spherical angle.
angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular
velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry^; clinometer,
graphometer^, goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.
triangle, trigon^, wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond;
rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature;
polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon^, decagon.
pyramid, cone.
Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron,
hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism,
pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.
Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous^, uncinated^, aquiline, jagged,
serrated; falciform^, falcated^; furcated^, forked, bifurcate, zigzag;
furcular^; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo^,
geniculated^; oblique &c 217.
fusiform [Micro.], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate^, multangular^,
oxygonal^; triangular, trigonal^, trilateral; quadrangular,
quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal
&c n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

245. Curvature — N. curvature, curvity^, curvation^; incurvature^,
incurvity^; incurvation^; bend; flexure, flexion, flection^; conflexure^;
crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection, deflexion^; inflection,
inflexion^; concameration^; arcuation^, devexity^, turn, deviation,
detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity^, recurvation^; sinuosity
&c 248.
carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule^,
horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix, spiral;
catenary^, festoon; conchoid^, cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched
ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window.
sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c
V. be curved, &c adj.; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag; deviate &c 279;
curl, turn; reenter.
render curved &c adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate^; inflect;
deflect, scatter [Phys.]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round,
arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate^; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle.
rotundity &c 249; convexity &c 250.
Adj. curved &c v.; curviform^, curvilineal^, curvilinear; devex^,
devious; recurved, recurvous^; crump^; bowed &c v.; vaulted, hooked;
falciform^, falcated^; semicircular, crescentic; sinusoid [Geom.],
parabolic, paraboloid; luniform^, lunular^; semilunar, conchoidal^;
helical, double helical, spiral; kinky; cordiform^, cordated^; cardioid;
heart shaped, bell shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped,
moon shaped, oar shaped, shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped,
pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney-shaped, reniform; lentiform^,
lenticular; bow-legged &c (distorted) 243; oblique &c 217; circular &c
aduncated^, arclike^, arcuate, arched, beaked; bicorn^, bicornuous^,
bicornute^; clypeate^, clypeiform^; cymbiform^, embowed^, galeiform^;
hamate^, hamiform^, hamous^; hooked; linguiform^, lingulate^; lobiform^,
lunate, navicular^, peltate^, remiform^, rhamphoid^; rostrate^,
rostriferous^, rostroid^; scutate^, scaphoid^, uncate^; unguiculate^,

246. Straightness — N. straightness, rectilinearity^, directness;
inflexibility &c (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct
line; short cut.
V. be straight &c adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side,
not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either
side; go straight; steer for &c (directions) 278.
render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight;
unbend, unfold, uncurl &c 248, unravel &c 219, unwrap.
Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal^; direct, even, right, true, in
a line; unbent, virgate^ &c v.; undeviating, unturned, undistorted,
unswerving; straight as an arrow &c (direct) 278; inflexible &c 323.
laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity — N. circularity, roundness;
rotundity &c 249.
circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet^, annulus, annulet^,
bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle,
zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel^, crown wheel; hub; nave; sash,
girdle, cestus^, cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland;
crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso,
ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid [Geom.],
epicycle; semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.
sphere &c 249.
V. make round &c adj.; round.
go round; encircle &c 227; describe a circle &c 311.
Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate;
elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c 245; cycloidal &c n.^;
spherical &c 249.
Phr. I watched the little circles die [Tennyson].

248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution — N. winding &c v.; convolution,
involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity,
anfractuosity^; sinuosity, sinuation^; meandering, circuit,
circumbendibus^, twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages^; torsion;
inosculation^; reticulation &c (crossing) 219; rivulation^; roughness &c
coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute,
rundle; tendril; scollop^, scallop, escalop^; kink; ammonite,
serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.
V. be convoluted &c adj.; wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave,
undulate, meander; inosculate^; entwine, intwine^; twist, coil, roll;
wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent, scollop^,
scallop, wring, intort^; contort; wreathe &c (cross) 219.
Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c v.; tortile^, tortive^; wavy;
undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent,
anguill^, vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous,
anfractuous^, reclivate^, rivulose^, scolecoid^; sigmoid, sigmoidal
[Geom.]; spiriferous^, spiroid^; involved, intricate, complicated,
perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic^, labyrinthian^, labyrinthine;
peristaltic; daedalian^; kinky, knotted.
wreathy^, frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c (in disorder) 59.
spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped;
turbinated, turbiniform^.
Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

249. Rotundity — N. rotundity; roundness &c adj.; cylindricity^;
sphericity, spheroidity^; globosity^.
cylinder, cylindroid^, cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller;
rouleau^, column, rolling-pin, rundle.
cone, conoid^; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.
sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder^; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong
spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule,
vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote^, clew, pill, marble, pea, knob,
pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248.
curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface.
V. render spherical &c adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a
ball; give rotundity &c n.; round.
Adj. rotund; round &c (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical,
cylindroid^; columnar, lumbriciform^; conic, conical; spherical,
spheroidal; globular, globated^, globous^, globose; egg shaped, bell
shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform^; campaniform^,
campanulate^, campaniliform^; fungiform^, bead-like, moniliform^,
pyriform^, bulbous; tres atque rotundus [Lat.]; round as an orange,
round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard ball, round as
a cannon ball.


250. Convexity — N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling,
gibbosity^, bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot
thank-ye-ma’am [U.S.].
intumescence; tumour [Brit.], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity [Anat.];
excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch.
boss, embossment, hub, hubble; [convex body parts] tooth [U.S.],
knob, elbow, process, apophysis^, condyle, bulb, node, nodule,
nodosity^, tongue, dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c (sharpness) 253;
bow; mamelon^; molar; belly, corporation^, pot belly, gut [Coll.];
withers, back, shoulder, lip, flange.
[convexities on skin] pimple, zit [Slang]; wen, wheel, papula
[Med.], pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle^, corn,
wart, pappiloma, furuncle, polypus^, fungus, fungosity^, exostosis^,
bleb, blister, blain^; boil &c (disease) 655; airbubble^, blob, papule,
[convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [Vulg.],
titty [Vulg.], boob [Vulg.], knocker [Vulg.], pap, breast, dug,
[prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak,
snout, nozzle, schnoz [Coll.].
peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.
cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.
relief, relievo [It], cameo; bassorilievo^, mezzorilevo^,
altorivievo; low relief, bas relief [Fr.], high relief.
hill &c (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland^;
point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze^, ness.
V. be prominent &c adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge [Fr.],
bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up,
start up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.
render prominent &c adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.
[become convex] belly out.
Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c v.; bossed,
embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated^, claviform;
hummocky^, moutonne^, mammiliform^; papulous^, papilose^; hemispheric,
bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous^;
cornute^, odontoid^; lentiform^, lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby
[U.S.], hubbly [U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform^,
subclavate^, torose^, ventricose^, verrucose^.
salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

251. Flatness — N. flatness &c adj.; smoothness &c 255.
plane; level &c 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
V. render flat, flatten; level &c 213.
Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform^, discoid; level &c
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a
flounder, flat as a board, flat as my hand.

252. Concavity — N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness;
indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit,
sinus, alveolus^, lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c (furrow)
259; honeycomb.
cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c (receptacle) 191; socket.
valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe^, bottom, slade^, strath^,
glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot^, grotto; alcove, cul-de-
sac; gully &c 198; arch &c (curve) 245; bay &c (of the sea) 343.
excavator, sapper, miner.
honeycomb (sponge) 252.1.
V. be concave &c adj.; retire, cave in.
render concave &c adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge,
gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine,
burrow, tunnel, stave in.
Adj. depressed &c v.; alveolate^, calathiform^, cup-shaped, dishing;
favaginous^, faveolate^, favose^; scyphiform^, scyphose^; concave,
hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c (with
holes) 260; infundibul^, infundibular^, infundibuliform^; funnel shaped,
bell shaped; campaniform^, capsular; vaulted, arched.

252a Sponge — N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit [Chem], filter.
sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.
Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious^; honeycombed, alveolar; sintered;
porous (opening) 260.

253. Sharpness — N. sharpness &c adj.; acuity, acumination^;
point, spike, spine, spicule [Biol.], spiculum^; needle, hypodermic
needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp;
horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam’s needle^, bear grass
[U.S.], tine, yucca.
nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.
crag, crest, arete [Fr.], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille^;
spire, pyramid, steeple.
beard, chevaux de frise [Fr.], porcupine, hedgehog, brier,
bramble, thistle; comb; awn, beggar’s lice, bur, burr, catchweed^,
cleavers, clivers^, goose, grass, hairif^, hariff, flax comb, hackle,
hatchel^, heckle.
wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife,
penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor,
electric razor; scalpel; bistoury^, lancet; plowshare, coulter, colter^;
hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver,
cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters, wire
cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c (arms) 727; bodkin &c
(perforator) 262; belduque^, bowie knife^, paring knife; bushwhacker
[U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome [Micro.]; chisel,
screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine.
sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite^; steel,
V. be sharp &c adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.
render sharp &c adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb,
spiculate^, set, strop, grind; chip (flint).
cut &c (sunder) 44.
Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform^; aculeated^, acuminated^;
pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate^, mucronated^; spindle
shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform^, peaked, salient;
cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated^; cornute^, cornuted^, cornicultate^;
prickly; spiny, spinous^, spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated^,
pectinated^, studded, thistly, briary^; craggy &c (rough) 256; snaggy,
digitated^, two-edged, fusiform [Micro.]; dentiform^, denticulated;
toothed; odontoid^; starlike; stellated^, stelliform^; sagittate^,
sagittiform^; arrowheaded^; arrowy^, barbed, spurred.
acinaciform; apiculate^, apiculated^; aristate^, awned, awny^,
bearded, calamiform^, cone-shaped, coniform^, crestate^, echinate^,
gladiate^; lanceolate^, lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-
shaped, scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped; setarious^, spinuliferous^,
subulate^, tetrahedral, xiphoid^.
cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a
razor; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c v.; set

254. Bluntness — N. bluntness &c adj..
V. be blunt, render blunt &c adj.; obtund^, dull; take off the point,
take off the edge; turn.
Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

255. Smoothness — N. smoothness &c adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity,
[smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen,
velour, velours, velumen^; glass, ice.
slide; bowling green &c (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement,
flagstone, flags.
[objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn
roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery
cloth, sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax;
polish, shoe polish.
[art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary.
[person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. smooth, smoothen^; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize;
polish, burnish, calender^, glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c
(oil) 332.
Adj. smooth; polished &c v.; leiodermatous^, slick, velutinous^; even;
level &c 213; plane &c (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky;
lanate^, downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery, glassy, lubricous, oily,
soft, unwrinkled^; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental
alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly
&c (feathery) 256.
Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery as
a greased pig.

256. Roughness — N. roughness &c adj.; tooth, grain, texture, ripple;
asperity, rugosity^, salebrosity^, corrugation, nodosity^; arborescence^
&c 242; pilosity^.
brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial,
tress, lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock;
beaucatcher^; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.
plumage, plumosity^; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe,
wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus^, moss,
bur; fluff.
knot (convolution) 248.
V. be rough &c adj.; go against the grain.
render-rough &c adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate,
set on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.
Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly, knotted; rugged, rugose^, rugous^;
knurly^; asperous^, crisp, salebrous^, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth^,
roughhewn^; craggy, cragged; crankling^, scraggy; prickly &c (sharp)
253; arborescent &c 242 [Obs.]; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose,
plumigerous^; laciniate^, laciniform^, laciniose^; pappose^; pileous^,
pilose^; trichogenous^, trichoid [Med.]; tufted, fimbriated, hairy,
ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose^, crinite^; bushy, hispid,
villous, pappous^, bearded, pilous^, shaggy, shagged; fringed,
befringed^; setous^, setose^, setaceous; like quills upon the fretful
porcupine [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.
downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate^, lanated^; lanuginous^,
lanuginose^; tomentose^; fluffy.
Adv. against the grain.
Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso [Sp.].

257. Notch — N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation; dimple.
embrasure, battlement, machicolation^; saw, tooth, crenelle^,
scallop, scollop^, vandyke; depression; jag.
V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scallop, scollop^, crenulate^, vandyke.
Adj. notched &c v.; crenate^, crenated^; dentate, dentated; denticulate,
denticulated; toothed, palmated^, serrated.

258. Fold — N. fold, plicature^, plait, pleat, ply, crease; tuck,
gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature^,
gather, wrinkle, rimple^, crinkle, crankle^, crumple, rumple, rivel^,
ruck^, ruffle, dog’s ear, corrugation, frounce^, flounce, lapel; pucker,
crow’s feet; plication^.
V. fold, double, plicate^, plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle^,
curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple^, rumple, flute, frizzle, frounce^,
rivel^, twill, corrugate, ruffle, crimple^, crumple, pucker; turn down,
double down, down under; tuck, ruck^, hem, gather.
Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c v..

259. Furrow — N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus [Anat.], scratch, streak,
striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road,
cradle hole.
channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse^, trough,
kennel; ravine &c (interval) 198; tajo [U.S.], thank-ye-ma’am [U.S.].
V. furrow &c n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.
Adj. furrowed &c v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated [Anat.], fluted,
canaliculated^; bisulcous^, bisulcate^, bisulcated^; canaliferous^;
trisulcate^; corduroy; unisulcate^; costate^, rimiform^.

260. Opening — N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel^;
transforation^; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole,
mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.
opening; aperture, apertness^; hiation^, yawning, oscitancy^,
dehiscence, patefaction^, pandiculation^; chasm &c (interval) 198.
embrasure, window, casement; abatjour^; light; sky light, fan
light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel [Arch.]; dormer, lantern.
outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker,
muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand^, wizen, nozzle; placket.
portal, porch, gate, ostiary^, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch,
door; arcade; cellarway^, driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway;
lich gate^.
way, path &c 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway;
tube, pipe; water pipe &c 350; air pipe &c 351; vessel, tubule, canal,
gut, fistula; adjutage^, ajutage^; ostium^; smokestack; chimney, flue,
tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit^, shaft; gallery.
alley, aisle, glade, vista.
bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite^, thundertube^.
porousness, porosity.
sieve, cullender^, colander; cribble^, riddle, screen; honeycomb.
apertion^, perforation; piercing &c v.; terebration^, empalement^,
pertusion^, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.
key &c 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-
V. open, ope^, gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.
perforate, pierce, empierce^, tap, bore, drill; mine &c (scoop out)
252; tunnel; transpierce^, transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear,
gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch;
stave in.
cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.
uncover, unclose, unrip^; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open,
pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open.
Adj. open; perforated &c v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed,
unstopped; oscitant^, gaping, yawning; patent.
tubular, cannular^, fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous^;
vesicular, vasicular^; porous, follicular, cribriform^, honeycombed,
infundibular^, riddled; tubulous^, tubulated^; piped, tubate^.
opening &c v.; aperient^.
Int. open sesame!,

261. Closure — N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c v.;
obstruction &c (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c 195;
infarction; constipation, obstipation^; blind alley, blind corner;
keddah^; cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation^, imperviousness &c adj.;
impermeability; stopper &c 263.
V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up,
button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c (hinder)
706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down, dam,
cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.
Adj. closed &c v.; shut, operculated^; unopened.
unpierced^, imporous^, caecal [Med.]; closable; imperforate,
impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable^;
invious^; pathless, wayless^; untrodden, untrod.
unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight,

262. Perforator — N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel,
gimlet, stylet^, drill, wimble^, awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier,
corkscrew, dibble, trocar [Med.], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle,
stiletto, rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit^, gouge;
spear &c (weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch

263. Stopper — N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer^; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding,
stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil^, pledget^, tompion^, tourniquet.
cover &c 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary^.



264. [Successive change of place.] Motion — N. motion, movement, move;
going &c v.; unrest.
stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics;
step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence,
carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion;
journey &c 266; voyage &c 267; transit &c 270.
restlessness &c (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness,
motive power; laws of motion; mobilization.
V. be in motion &c adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass, flit;
hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll, roll
on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c (deviate) 279;
walk &c 266; change one’s place, shift one’s place, change one’s
quarters, shift one’s quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving; put in
motion, set in motion; move; impel &c 276; propel &c 284; render
movable, mobilize.
Adj. moving &c v.; in motion; transitional; motory^, motive; shifting,
movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c (changeable) 149;
nomadic &c 266; erratic &c 279.
Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march.
Phr. eppur si muove [Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille
[G.], sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt [G.].

265. Quiescence — N. rest; stillness &c adj.; quiescence; stagnation,
stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance^; quietism.
quiet, tranquility, calm; repose &c 687; peace; dead calm,
anticyclone^; statue-like repose; silence &c 203; not a breath of air,
not a mouse stirring; sleep &c (inactivity) 683.
pause, lull &c (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c v.;
lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo.
resting place; gite [Fr.]; bivouac; home &c (abode) 189; pillow &c
(support) 215; haven &c (refuge) 666; goal &c (arrival) 292.
V. be quiescent &c adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose,
hold the breath.
remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ,
tarry, mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold,
halt; stop, stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to
an anchor; rest on one’s oars; repose on one’s laurels, take breath;
stop &c (discontinue) 142.
stagnate; quieta non movere [Lat.]; let alone; abide, rest and be
thankful; keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed.
dwell &c (be present) 186; settle &c (be located) 184; alight &c
(arrive) 292; stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not
stir a step; be at a stand &c n.. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to
sleep, lay an embargo on.
Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary;
immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still;
standing still &c v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed,
stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful;
cataleptic; immovable &c (stable) 150; sleeping &c (inactive) 683;
silent &c 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse,
still as death; vegetative, vegetating.
Adv. at a stand &c adj.; tout court; at the halt.
Int. stop!, stay!, avast!, halt!, hold hard!, whoa!, hold!, sabr karo!^.
Phr. requiescat in pace [Lat.]; Deus nobis haec otia fecit [Lat.]
[Vergil]; the noonday quiet holds the hill [Tennyson].

266. [Locomotion by land.] Journey — N. travel; traveling &c v..
wayfaring, campaigning.
journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit,
peregrination, discursion^, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course,
ambulation^, march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter,
tramp, jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation^,
noctambulism; somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt.
equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege [Fr.], ride and tie;
roving, vagrancy, pererration^; marching and countermarching;
nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit,
flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration^,
intermigration^; wanderlust.
plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, guidebook, road book; Baedeker^,
Bradshaw, Murray; map, road map, transportation guide, subway map.
procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column.
[Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c 272; automobile,
train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt
bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter, trolley,
locomotive; legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters.
traveler &c 268.
depot [U.S.], railway station, station.
V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk,
go out for walk &c n.; have a run; take the air.
flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam,
range, patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse
the country; peragrate^; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize^, wander,
ramble, stroll, saunter, hover, go one’s rounds, straggle; gad, gad
about; expatiate.
walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank’s mare;
promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, hoof
it, stump, bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path.
take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk^, frisk,
caracoler^, caracole; gallop &c (move quickly) 274.
[start riding] embark, board, set out, hit the road, get going,
get underway.
peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one’s stumps; bend one’s
steps, bend one’s course; make one’s way, find one’s way, wend one’s
way, pick one’s way, pick one’s way, thread one’s way, plow one’s way;
slide, glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile.
go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to.
Adj. traveling &c v.; ambulatory, itinerant, peripatetic, roving,
rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic;
circumforanean^, circumforaneous^; noctivagrant^, mundivagrant;
wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained.
Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks’s mare; by the Marrowbone stage:
in transitu &c 270 [Lat.]; en route &c 282.
Int. come along!,

267. [Locomotion by water, or air.] Navigation — N. navigation;
aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail,
canvas, aileron.
natation^, swimming; fin, flipper, fish’s tail.
aerostation^, aerostatics^, aeronautics; balloonery^; balloon &c
273; ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight, volitation^;
wing, pinion; rocketry, space travel, astronautics, orbital mechanics,
voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus^;
headway, sternway, leeway; fairway.
mariner &c 269.
flight, trip; shuttle, run, airlift.
V. sail; put to sea &c (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set
sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail,
carry sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the
ocean; walk the waters.
navigate, warp, luff^, scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise,
coast; hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate.
ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam.
swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer
[Fr.], dive, wade.
fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter, jet, orbit, rocket; take
wing, take a flight, take off, ascend, blast off, land, alight; wing
one’s flight, wing one’s way; aviate; parachute, jump, glide.
Adj. sailing &c v.; volant^, aerostatic^; seafaring, nautical, maritime,
naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial, aeronautic;
Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing, in
flight, in orbit.
Phr. bon voyage; spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale [Pope].

268. Traveler — N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant, passenger,
tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, hiker,
backpacker, Alpine Club; peregrinator^, wanderer, rover, straggler,
rambler; bird of passage; gadabout, gadling^; vagrant, scatterling^,
landloper^, waifs and estrays^, wastrel, foundling; loafer; tramp,
tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian, gypsy, Arab^, Wandering Jew, Hadji,
pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic; somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive,
refugee; beach comber, booly^; globegirdler^, globetrotter; vagrant,
hobo [U.S.], night walker, sleep walker; noctambulist, runabout,
straphanger, swagman, swagsman [Austral.]; trecker^, trekker, zingano^,
runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel^, comet.
pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman.
rider, horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider,
trainer, breaker.
driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy^,
carter, wagoner, drayman^; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier^, vetturino^,
condottiere^; engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard; chauffeur,
conductor, engineer, gharry-wallah^, gari-wala^, hackman, syce^,
Phr. on the road

269. Mariner — N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer,
seafaring man; dock walloper [Slang]; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman,
B.; man-of-war’s man, bluejacket, galiongee^, galionji^, marine,
jolly, midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman^, boatman, ferryman,
waterman^, lighterman^, bargeman, longshoreman; bargee^, gondolier; oar,
oarsman; rower; boatswain, cockswain^; coxswain; steersman, pilot; crew.
aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist^,
airman, aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air, aviatrix, flier,
pilot, test pilot, glider pilot, bush pilot, navigator, flight
attendant, steward, stewardess, crew; astronaut, cosmonaut;
parachutist, paratrooper.

270. Transference — N. transfer, transference; translocation,
elocation^; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion^,
amotion^; relegation; deportation, asportation^; extradition,
conveyance, draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction,
contagion; transfer &c (of property) 783.
transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage,
porterage^, carting, cartage; shoveling &c v.; vection^, vecture^,
vectitation^; shipment, freight, wafture^; transmission, transport,
transportation, importation, exportation, transumption^,
transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion &c 73;
transposition &c (interchange) 148; traction &c 285.
[Thing transferred] drift.
V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace^, transplant, translocate;
convey, carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over; hand
pass, forward; shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote
[U.S.]; port, import, export.
send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship,
embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c (interchange) 148; displace &c 185;
throw &c 284; drag &c 285; mail, post.
shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse, infuse, siphon.
Adj. transferred &c v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative^; mailable
[U.S.]; contagious.
Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post.
on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing, under way, in
transit, on course; as one goes; in transitu [Lat.], en route, chemin
faisant [Fr.], en passant [Fr.], in mid progress, in mid course.

271. Carrier — N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter^, conveyer;
cargador^; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor,
locomotive, motor.
beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, palfrey, Arab^, blood
horse, thoroughbred, galloway^, charger, courser, racer, hunter,
jument^, pony, filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad,
cob, tit, punch, roadster, goer^; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse,
cart horse, dray horse, post horse; ketch; Shetland pony, shelty,
sheltie; garran^, garron^; jennet, genet^, bayard^, mare, stallion,
gelding; bronco, broncho^, cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter [U.S.]; cow
pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler^; stud.
Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante.
ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule;
burro, cuddy^, ladino [U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama,
elephant; carrier pigeon.
[object used for carrying] pallet, brace, cart, dolley; support &c
215; fork lift.
carriage &c (vehicle) 272; ship &c 273.
Adj. equine, asinine.

272. Vehicle — N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van; common
carrier; wagon, waggon^, wain, dray, cart, lorry.
truck, tram; cariole, carriole^; limber, tumbrel, pontoon; barrow;
wheel barrow, hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair, sedan
chair; chaise; palankeen^, palanquin; litter, brancard^, crate, hurdle,
stretcher, ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon, conestoga wain;
jinrikisha, ricksha, brett^, dearborn [U.S.], dump cart, hack, hackery^,
jigger, kittereen^, mailstate^, manomotor^, rig, rockaway^, prairie
schooner [U.S.], shay, sloven, team, tonga^, wheel; hobbyhorse, go-cart;
cycle; bicycle, bike, two-wheeler; tricycle, velocipede, quadricycle^.
equipage, turn-out; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton,
wagonette, drag, curricle^, tilbury^, whisky, landau, barouche,
victoria, brougham, clarence^, calash, caleche [Fr.], britzka^, araba^,
kibitka^; berlin; sulky, desobligeant [Fr.], sociable, vis-a-vis,
dormeuse [Fr.]; jaunting car, outside car; dandi^; doolie^, dooly^;
munchil^, palki^; roller skates, skate; runabout; ski; tonjon^; vettura^.
post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney
coach, glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet^, cab,
hansom, shofle^, four-wheeler, growler, droshki^, drosky^.
dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random,
tandem; shandredhan^, char-a-bancs [Fr.].
motor car, automobile, limousine, car, auto, jalopy, clunker,
lemon, flivver, coupe, sedan, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, luxury
sedan; wheels [Coll.], sports car, roadster, gran turismo [It], jeep,
four-wheel drive vehicle, electric car, steamer; golf cart, electric
wagon; taxicab, cab, taxicoach^, checker cab, yellow cab; station wagon,
family car; motorcycle, motor bike, side car; van, minivan, bus,
minibus, microbus; truck, wagon, pick-up wagon, pick-up, tractor-
trailer, road train, articulated vehicle; racing car, racer, hot rod,
stock car, souped-up car.
bob, bobsled, bobsleigh^; cutter; double ripper, double runner
[U.S.]; jumper, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan.
train; accommodation train, passenger train, express trail,
special train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train,
freight train, goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class
train, 1st class carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st
class compartment, 2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment;
rolling stock; horse box, cattle truck; baggage car, express car,
freight car, parlor car, dining car, Pullman car, sleeping car,
sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car, trolley car; box car, box
wagon; horse car [U.S.]; bullet train, shinkansen [Jap.], cannonball,
the Wabash cannonball, lightning express; luggage van; mail, mail car,
mail van.
shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle^, loy^;
spud; pitchfork; post hole digger.
[powered construction vehicles] tractor, steamshovel, backhoe,
fork lift, earth mover, dump truck, bulldozer, grader, caterpillar,
trench digger, steamroller; pile driver; crane, wrecking crane.

273. Ship — N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom.
navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping.
man of war &c (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship^;
merchant ship, merchantman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier,
coaster, lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht;
baggala^; floating hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound.
ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine,
barkantine^; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three
masted schooner; chasse-maree [Fr.]; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper,
foist, yawl, dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy^, cat, buss;
sailer, sailing vessel; windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship,
liner, ocean liner, cruiseship, ship of the line; mail steamer, paddle
steamer, screw steamer; tug; line of steamers &c. destroyer, cruiser,
frigate; landing ship, LST; aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop [Coll.],
nuclear powered carrier; submarine, submersible, atomic submarine.
boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat,
fly boat, cock boat, ferry boat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully,
battery, bateau [Can.], broadhorn^, dory, droger^, drogher; dugout,
durham boat, flatboat, galiot^; shallop^, gig, funny, skiff, dingy,
scow, cockleshell, wherry, coble^, punt, cog, kedge, lerret^; eight oar,
four oar, pair oar; randan^; outrigger; float, raft, pontoon; prame^;
iceboat, ice canoe, ice yacht.
catamaran, hydroplane, hovercraft, coracle, gondola, carvel^,
caravel; felucca, caique^, canoe, birch bark canoe, dugout canoe;
galley, galleyfoist^; bilander^, dogger^, hooker, howker^; argosy,
carack^; galliass^, galleon; polacca^, polacre^, tartane^, junk, lorcha^,
praam^, proa^, prahu^, saick^, sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah^; nuggah^;
kayak, keel boat [U.S.], log canoe, pirogue; quadrireme^, trireme;
stern-wheeler [U.S.]; wanigan^, wangan [U.S.], wharf boat.
balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane^;
hydroplane; aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon,
dirigible, zeppelin; aerostat, Montgolfier; kite, parachute.
jet plane, rocket plane, jet liner, turbojet, prop-jet, propeller
plane; corporate plane, corporate jet, private plane, private aviation;
airline, common carrier; fighter, bomber, fighter-bomber, escort plane,
spy plane; supersonic aircraft, subsonic aircraft.
Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port,
hard a starboard, hard a weather.


274. Velocity — N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c adj.;
rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c (activity) 682; pernicity^;
acceleration; haste &c 684.
spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate,
swift rate &c adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart
pace, lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, strapping
pace; round pace; flying, flight.
lightning, greased lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon
ball, rocket, arrow, dart, hydrargyrum [Lat.], quicksilver; telegraph,
express train; torrent.
eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare,
doe, squirrel, camel bird, chickaree^, chipmunk, hackee [U.S.], ostrich,
scorcher [Slang].
Mercury, Ariel^, Camilla^, Harlequin.
[Measurement of velocity] log, log line; speedometer, odometer,
tachometer, strobe, radar speed detector, radar trap, air speed gauge,
wind sock, wind speed meter; pedometer.
V. move quickly, trip, fisk^; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank, scuttle;
scud, scuddle^; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like mad, beat it;
fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, zoom, swoosh,
sweep, skim, brush; cut along, bowl along, barrel along, barrel;
scorch, burn up the track; rush &c (be violent) 173; dash on, dash off,
dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring,
dart, boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get
over the ground.
hurry &c (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one’s
pace, mend one’s pace; clap spurs to one’s horse; make haste, make
rapid strides, make forced marches, make the best of one’s way; put
one’s best leg foremost, stir one’s stumps, wing one’s way, set off at
a score; carry sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go
ahead, gain ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind.
keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c 303; outmarch^.
Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped^; nimble, agile,
expeditious; express; active &c 682; flying, galloping &c v.; light
footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric,
telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c n.;
quick as lightning &c n., quick as a thought.
Adv. swiftly &c adj.; with speed &c n.; apace; at a great rate, at full
speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full
sail, tantivy^; trippingly; instantaneously &c 113.
under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail
and steam; velis et remis [Lat.], on eagle’s wing, in double quick
time; with rapid strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant [Fr.]; in
seven league boots; whip and spur; ventre a terre [Fr.]; as fast as
one’s legs will carry one, as fast as one’s heels will carry one; as
fast as one can lay legs to the ground, at the top of one’s speed; by
leaps and bounds; with haste &c 684.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat.]; I’ll put a girdle about the earth in
forty minutes [M.N.D.]; swifter than arrow from the Tartar’s bow
[M.N.D.]; go like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit [Lat.].

275. Slowness — N. slowness &c adj.; languor &c (inactivity) 683;
drawl; creeping &c v., lentor^.
retardation; slackening &c v.; delay &c (lateness) 133;
jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time.
slow goer^, slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard,
tortoise, snail; poke [U.S.]; dawdle &c (inactive) 683.
V. move slowly &c adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger, loiter,
saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c (be
inactive) 683; grovel, worm one’s way, steal along; job on, rub on,
bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble^, slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle,
halt, hobble, limp, caludicate^, shamble; flag, falter, trotter,
stagger; mince, step short; march in slow time, march in funeral
procession; take one’s time; hang fire &c (be late) 133.
retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef;
strike sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the
brake; clip the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one’s
pace; lose ground.
Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c (inactive) 683; gentle, easy;
leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial,
languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade^, snail-like; creeping &c v.;
Adv. slowly &c adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at
half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail’s pace, at a
funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings;
haud passibus aequis [Lat.] [Vergil].
gradually &c adj.; gradatim [Lat.]; by degrees, by slow degrees,
by inches, by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch
by inch, bit by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively.
Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit [Lat.]; at a glacial pace.


276. Impulse — N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push,
pulsion^, thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw;
explosion &c (violence) 173; propulsion &c 284.
percussion, concussion, collision, occursion^, clash, encounter,
cannon, carambole^, appulse^, shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge
&c (attack) 716; beating &c (punishment) 972.
blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab;
fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c 972; squash, dowse,
swap, whap^, punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce^, calcitration^; ruade^;
arietation^; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk^; carom, carrom^, clip [Slang],
jab, plug [Slang], sidewinder [U.S.], sidewipe^, sideswipe [U.S.].
hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer^;
battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook;
cudgel &c (weapon) 727; ax &c (sharp) 253.
[Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer,
accelerometer, earthquake detector.
V. give an impetus &c n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set
going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin [Fr.]; cant; elbow,
shoulder, jostle, justle^, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter;
run against, bump against, butt against; knock one’s head against, run
one’s head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan,
fan out; jab, plug [Slang].
strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat,
blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard;
swap, batter, dowse^, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a
blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk^; kick, calcitrate^; butt, strike at &c
(attack) 716; whip &c (punish) 972.
come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe;
foul; fall foul of, run foul of; telescope.
throw &c (propel) 284.
Adj. impelling &c v.; impulsive, impellent^; booming; dynamic,
dynamical; impelled &c v..
Phr. a hit, a very palpable hit [Hamlet].

277. Recoil — N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce,
rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration^; kick, contrecoup
[Fr.]; springing back &c v.; elasticity &c 325; reflection, reflexion
[Brit.], reflex, reflux; reverberation &c (resonance) 408; rebuff,
repulse; return.
ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist^.
elastic collision, coefficient of restitution.
V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back;
rebound, reverberate, repercuss^, recalcitrate^; echo, ricochet.
Adj. recoiling &c v.; refluent^, repercussive, recalcitrant,
reactionary; retroactive.
Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c n..
Phr. for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].


278. Direction — N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift,
tenor; tendency &c 176; incidence; bending, trending &c v.; dip, tack,
aim, collimation; steering steerage.
point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N
by E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb^, azimuth, line of collimation.
line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment,
allignment^; air line, beeline; straight shoot.
V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point
to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine.
steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level
at; take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one’s
steps towards; direct one’s course, steer one’s course, bend one’s
course, shape one’s course; align one’s march, allign one’s march^; to
straight, go straight to the point; march on, march on a point.
ascertain one’s direction &c n.; s’orienter [Fr.], see which way
the wind blows; box the compass; take the air line.
Adj. directed &c v.. directed towards; pointing towards &c v.; bound
for; aligned, with alligned with^; direct, straight; undeviating,
unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c n..
Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to;
hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as
an arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the
crow flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line
for, in a straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with,
in a straight line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow
before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the
wind; windwards, in the wind’s eye.
through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways;
quaquaversum [Lat.], from the four winds.
Phr. the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.

279. Deviation — N. deviation; swerving &c v.; obliquation^, warp,
refraction; flection^, flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure^;
diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c 291;
zigzag; detour &c (circuit) 629; divagation.
[Desultory motion] wandering &c v.; vagrancy, evagation^; bypaths
and crooked ways; byroad.
[Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c v.; knight’s move at
V. alter one’s course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve
&c 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe^, wear.
intervert^; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new
scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp.
stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c 291; tralineate^; digress,
wander; wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn
aside, turn a corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble,
rove, drift; go astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off,
make way for, shy.
fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to
the right about, face to the right about; waddle &c (oscillate) 314; go
out of one’s way &c (perform a circuit) 629; lose one’s way.
Adj. deviating &c v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive; devious,
desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected,
circuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like.
Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about;
all manner of ways; circuitously &c 629.
obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

280. [Going before.] Precession — N. precession, leading, heading;
precedence &c 62; priority &c 116; the lead, le pas; van &c (front)
234; precursor &c 64.
V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede, forerun;
usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way, lead
the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before,
get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c 303; take precedence &c (first
in order) 62.
Adj. leading, precedent &c v..
Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost,
headmost^; in front; at the head, out in front; way out in front, far
Phr. seniores priores [Lat.], ahead of his time.

281. [Going after.] Sequence — N. sequence; coming after &c (order)
63; (time) 117; following pursuit &c 622.
follower, attendant, satellite, shadow, dangler, train.
V. follow; pursue &c 622; go after, fly after.
attend, beset, dance attendance on, dog; tread in the steps of,
tread close upon; be in the wake of, be in the trail of, be in the rear
of, go in the wake of, go in the trail of, go in the rear of, follow in
the wake of, follow in the trail of, follow in the rear of; follow as a
shadow, hang on the skirts of; tread on the heels of, follow on the
heels of; camp on the trail.
Adj. subsequent, next, succeeding; following &c v..
Adv. behind; in the rear &c 235, in the train of, in the wake of; after
&c (order) 63, (time) 117.

282. [Motion forward; progressive motion.] Progression — N. progress,
progression, progressiveness; advancing &c v.; advance, advancement;
ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c 266; rise; improvement &c 658.
V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground;
gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream;
keep one’s course, hold on one’s course; go on, move on, come one, get
on, pass on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward,
get forward, pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards,
move forwards, come forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push
forwards, press forwards, go ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead,
pass ahead, push ahead, press ahead; make one’s way, work one’s way,
carve one’s way, push one’s way, force one’s way, edge one’s way, elbow
one’s way; make progress, make head, make way, make headway, make
advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c (velocity) 274; go ahead,
shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway.
Adj. advancing &c v.; progressive, profluent^; advanced.
Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on
one’s way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to;
in progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c 270 [Lat.].
Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat.]; westward the course of empire
takes its way [Berkeley].

283. [Motion backwards.] Regression — N. regress, regression;
retrocession^, retrogression, retrograduation^, retroaction; reculade^;
retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration^; recession &c (motion
from) 287; recess; crab-like motion.
refluence^, reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return;
resilience reflection, reflexion [Brit.] (recoil) 277; flip-flop,
volte-face [Fr.].
counter motion, retrograde motion, backward movement, motion in
reverse, counter movement, counter march; veering, tergiversation,
recidivation^, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c 659; recidivism,
reversal, relapse, turning point &c (reversion) 145.
V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde,
retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish [U.S.], crawl [Slang];
withdraw; rebound &c 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back,
draw back, fall back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall
astern, drop astern; backwater, put about; backtrack, take the back
track; veer round; double, wheel, countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib,
shrink, shy.
turn tail, turn round, turn upon one’s heel, turn one’s back upon;
retrace one’s steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a
retreat; go home.
Adj. receding &c v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive, refluent^,
reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky; reactionary &c 277.
Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons
[Fr.], a rebours [Fr.].
Phr. revenons a nos moutons [Fr.], as you were.

284. [Motion given to an object situated in front.] Propulsion — N.
propulsion, projection; propelment^; vis a tergo [Lat.], force from
behind; push, shove &c (impulse) 276; ejaculate; ejection &c 297;
throw, fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy; launch, release.
[Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.
[devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws,
turbine, jet engine.
[objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit,
brickbat, shot; [weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c (arms)
727 [Obs.].
[preparation for propulsion] countdown, windup.
shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite^; bowman, rifleman, marksman;
good shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c (combatant) 726.
V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk,
heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.
dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate^; fulminate, bolt, drive,
sling, pitchfork.
send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch,
release, send forth, let fly; put in orbit, send into orbit, launch
into orbit dash.
put in motion, set in motion; set agoing^, start; give a start,
give an impulse to; impel &c 276; trundle &c (set in rotation) 312;
expel &c 297.
carry one off one’s legs; put to flight.
Adj. propelled &c v.; propelling &c v.; propulsive, projectile.

285. [Motion given to an object situated behind.] Traction — N.
traction; drawing &c v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; a long pull a
strong pull and a pull all together; towage^, haulage.
V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in
wrench, jerk, twitch, touse^; yank [U.S.].
Adj. drawing &c v.; tractile^, tractive.

286. [Motion towards.] Approach — N. approach, approximation,
appropinquation^; access; appulse^; afflux^, affluxion^; advent &c
(approach of time) 121; pursuit &c 622.
V. approach, approximate, appropinquate^; near; get near, go near, draw
near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in towards;
drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c 622; tread on the heels of;
bear up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land.
Adj. approaching &c v.; approximative^; affluent; impending, imminent &c
(destined) 152.
Adv. on the road.
Int. come hither!, approach!, here!, come!, come near!, forward!,

287. [Motion from.] Recession — N. recession, retirement, withdrawal;
retreat; retrocession &c 283 [Obs.]; departure, &c 293; recoil &c 277;
flight &c (avoidance) 623.
V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shrink, back
off; come away, move away, back away, go away, get away, drift away;
depart &c 293; retreat &c 283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall
back, stand aside; run away &c (avoid) 623.
remove, shunt, distance.
Adj. receding &c v..
Phr. distance oneself from a person.

288. [Motion towards, actively; force causing to draw closer.]
Attraction — N. attraction, attractiveness; attractivity^; drawing to,
pulling towards, adduction^.
electrical attraction, electricity, static electricity, static,
static cling; magnetism, magnetic attraction; gravity, attraction of
[objects which attract by physical force] lodestone, loadstone,
lodestar, loadstar^; magnet, permanent magnet, siderite, magnetite;
electromagnet; magnetic coil, voice coil; magnetic dipole; motor coil,
rotor, stator.
electrical charge; positive charge, negative charge.
magnetic pole; north pole, south pole; magnetic monopole.
V. attract, draw; draw towards, pull towards, drag towards; adduce.
Adj. attracting &c v.; attrahent^, attractive, adducent^, adductive^.
Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Lat.] [Plautus].

289. [Motion from, actively; force driving apart.] Repulsion — N.
repulsion; driving from &c v.; repulse, abduction.
magnetic repulsion, magnetic levitation; antigravity.
V. repel, push from, drive apart, drive from &c 276; chase, dispel;
retrude^; abduce^, abduct; send away; repulse.
keep at arm’s length, turn one’s back upon, give the cold
shoulder; send off, send away with a flea in one’s ear.
Adj. repelling &c v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent^, abductive^.
Phr. like charges repel; opposite charges attract; like poles repel,
opposite poles attract.

290. [Motion nearer to.] Convergence — N. convergence, confluence,
concourse, conflux^, congress, concurrence, concentration; convergency;
appulse^, meeting; corradiation^.
assemblage &c 72; resort &c (focus) 74; asymptote.
V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close
with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.
gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.
Adj. converging &c v.; convergent, confluent, concurrent; centripetal;
asymptotical, asymptotic; confluxible^.

291. [Motion further off.] Divergence — N. divergence, divergency^;
divarication, ramification, forking; radiation; separation &c
(disjunction) 44; dispersion &c 73; deviation &c 279; aberration.
V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file
off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c 73;
deviate &c 279; part &c (separate) 44.
Adj. diverging &c v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

292. [Terminal motion at.] Arrival — N. arrival, advent; landing;
debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d’honneur [Fr.].
home, goal, goalpost; landing place, landing stage; bunder^;
resting place; destination, harbor, haven, port, airport, spaceport;
terminus, halting place, halting ground, landing strip, runway,
terminal; journey’s end; anchorage &c (refuge) 666.
return, remigration^; meeting; rencounter^, encounter.
completion &c 729.
recursion [Comp.].
V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up
to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c 729; join, rejoin.
light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put
in, put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one’s tent; sit down &c (be
located) 184; get to one’s journey’s end; make the land; be in at the
death; come back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c
(ingress) 294; make one’s appearance &c (appear) 446; drop in; detrain,
deplane; outspan; de-orbit.
come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon,
pop upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet;
encounter, rencounter^; come in contact.
Adj. arriving &c v.; homeward bound.
Adv. here, hither.
Int. welcome!, hail!, all Hail!, good-day, good morrow!,
Phr. any port in a storm.

293. [Initial motion from.] Departure — N. departure, decession^,
decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c (egress) 295;
exodus, hejira, flight.
leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf
wiedersehen [G.], sayonara, dosvidanya [Rus.], ciao, aloha, hasta la
vista [Sp.]; stirrup cup; valedictorian.
starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of
embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of
embarkation; airport, take-off point, taxiing runway, runway, launching
pad, spaceport.
V. depart; go away; take one’s departure, set out; set off, march off,
put off, start off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go
off, take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth,
sally forth; sally, set forward; be gone; hail from.
leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage,
make one’s exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose [Slang], vamose
[U.S.]; go one’s way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing;
spring, fly, flit, wing one’s flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go
on board, go aboard; set sail’ put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship;
hoist blue Peter; get under way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp;
walk one’s chalks, cut one’s stick; take leave; say good bye, bid
goodbye &c n.; disappear &c 449; abscond &c (avoid) 623; entrain;
Adj. departing &c v.; valedictory; outward bound.
Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing, on
the move.
Int. begone!, &c (ejection) 297; farewell!, adieu!, goodbye!, good
day!, au revoir! [Fr.], fare you well!, God bless you!, God speed!, all
aboard!, auf wiedersehen! [G.], au plaisir de vous revoir! [Fr.], bon
voyage!, gluckliche Reise! [G.], vive valeque! [Fr.],

294. [Motion into.] Ingress — N. ingress; entrance, entry;
introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion,
irruption; ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse^, import,
infiltration; immigration; admission &c (reception) 296; insinuation &c
(interjacence) 228 [Obs.]; insertion &c 300.
inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c (opening) 260; barway^; path &c
(way) 627; conduit &c 350; immigrant.
V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour
into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into,
slip in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in;
set foot on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude;
insinuate itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one’s way
into, wriggle into, worm oneself into.
give entrance to &c (receive) 296; insert &c 300.
Adj. incoming.

295. [Motion out of.] Egress — N. egress, exit, issue; emersion,
emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption^; emanation;
egression; evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation [Med.],
perspiration, sweating, leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing;
gush &c (water in motion) 348; outpour, outpouring; effluence,
effusion; effluxion^, drain; dribbling &c v.; defluxion^; drainage;
outcome, output; discharge &c (excretion) 299.
export, expatriation; emigration, remigration^; debouch, debouche;
emunctory^; exodus &c (departure) 293; emigrant.
outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory,
outgate^, sally port; way out; mouth, door &c (opening) 260; path &c
(way) 627; conduit &c 350; airpipe &c 351 [Obs.].
V. emerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out of,
pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate.
exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate,
transcolate^; egurgitate^; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain,
ooze; filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out;
pour, trickle, &c (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate [Med.],
disembogue^, discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst
out, burst through; find vent; escape &c 671.
Adj. effused &c v.; outgoing.

296. [Motion into, actively.] Reception — N. reception; admission,
admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission; immission^,
ingestion, imbibation^, introception^, absorption, ingurgitation^,
inhalation; suction, sucking; eating, drinking &c (food) 298; insertion
&c 300; interjection &c 228; introit.
V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce,
intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to,
throw in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale, breathe in; let in, take in,
suck in, draw in; readmit, resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow,
ingurgitate^; engulf, engorge; gulp; eat, drink &c (food) 298.
Adj. admitting &c v., admitted &c v.; admissable; absorbent.

297. [Motion out of, actively] Ejection — N. ejection, emission,
effusion, rejection, expulsion, exportation, eviction, extrusion,
trajection^; discharge.
emesis, vomiting, vomition^.
egestion^, evacuation; ructation^, eructation; bloodletting,
venesection [Med.], phlebotomy, paracentesis^; expuition, exspuition;
tapping, drainage; clearance, clearage^.
deportation; banishment &c (punishment ) 972; rouge’s march;
relegation, extradition; dislodgment.
bouncer [U.S.], chucker-out [Slang].
[material vomited] vomit, vomitus [Med.], puke, barf [Coll.].
V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, squeeze out,
send out; dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern^, excrete; embogue^;
secrete, secern^; extravasate [Med.], shed, void, evacuation; emit; open
the sluices, open the floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude^;
effuse, spend, expend; pour forth; squirt, spirt^, spurt, spill, slop;
perspire &c (exude) 295; breathe, blow &c (wind) 349.
tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach.
eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott;
chasser [Fr.]; banish &c (punish) 972; bounce [U.S.]; fire [Slang],
fire out [Slang]; throw &c 284, throw out, throw up, throw off, throw
away, throw aside; push &c 276; throw out, throw off, throw away, throw
aside; shovel out, shovel away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush
away, whisk off, whisk away, turn off, turn away, send off, send away;
discharge; send adrift, turn adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out;
throw overboard; give the sack to; send packing, send about one’s
business, send to the right about; strike off the roll &c (abrogate)
756; turn out neck and heels, turn out head and shoulders, turn out
neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea in the ear; send to
Jericho; bow out, show the door to, turn out of doors, turn out of
house and home; evict, oust; unhouse, unkennel; dislodge; unpeople^,
dispeople^; depopulate; relegate, deport.
empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear
away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweep of, clear decks,
embowel^, disbowel^, disembowel; eviscerate, gut; unearth, root
out, root up; averuncate^; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of, do
away with, shake off; exenterate^.
vomit, throw up, regurgitate, spew, puke, keck^, retch, heave,
upchuck, chuck up, barf; belch out; cast up, bring up, be sick, get
sick, worship the porcelain god.
disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter,
splutter, slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber^; eructate; drool.
unpack, unlade, unload, unship, offload; break bulk; dump.
be let out.
spew forth, erupt, ooze &c (emerge) 295.
Adj. emitting, emitted, &c v..
Int. begone!, get you gone!, get away, go away, get along, go along,
get along with you, go along with you!, go your way!, away with!, off
with you!, get the hell out of here! [Vulg.], go about your business!,
be off!, avaunt!^, aroynt!^, allez-vous-en! [Fr.], jao!^, va-t’en! [Fr.],

298. [Eating.] Food — N. eating &c v.; deglutition, gulp, epulation^,
mastication, manducation^, rumination; gluttony &c 957.
[eating specific foods] hippophagy^, ichthyophagy^.
[Eating anatomy:] (appetite) &c 865; mouth, jaws, mandible,
mazard^, gob [Slang], chops.
drinking &c v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c
(amusement) 840; drunkenness &c 959.
food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance,
sustentation, sustention; nurture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed,
fodder, provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissariat &c
(provision) 637; prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet,
dietary; regimen; belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese.
comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub,
grubstake, prog^, meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia^; cereals; viands,
cates^, delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder,
fleshpots; festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living.
beef, bisquit^, bun; cornstarch [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.];
cracker, doughnut; fatling^; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.];
mutton, pilot bread; pork; roti^, rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint, piece
de resistance [Fr.], roast and boiled; remove, entremet^, releve [Fr.],
hash, rechauffe [Fr.], stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage, potage^,
broth, soup, consomme, puree, spoonmeat^; pie, pasty, volauvent^;
pudding, omelet; pastry; sweets &c 296; kickshaws^; condiment &c 393.
appetizer, hors d’oeuvre [Fr.].
main course, entree.
alligator pear, apple &c, apple slump; artichoke; ashcake^,
griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole^, avocado, banana, beche de mer
[Fr.], barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater,
bouilli^, bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder, chupatty^,
clam, compote, damper, fish, frumenty^, grapes, hasty pudding, ice
cream, lettuce, mango, mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal, oyster,
pineapple, porridge, porterhouse steak, salmis^, sauerkraut, sea slug,
sturgeon (“Albany beef”), succotash [U.S.], supawn [U.S.], trepang^,
vanilla, waffle, walnut.
table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d’hote [Fr.], ordinary,
meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale;
regalement^, refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic,
feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner [Fr.],
bever^, tiffin^, dinner, supper, snack, junk food, fast food, whet,
bait, dessert; potluck, table d’hote [Fr.], dejeuner a la fourchette
[Fr.]; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full meal; blowout
[Slang]; light refreshment; bara^, chotahazri^; bara khana^.
mouthful, bolus, gobbet^, morsel, sop, sippet^.
drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught,
drench, swill [Slang]; nip, sip, sup, gulp.
wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John
Barleycorn, stingo^, heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus^,
cup, bishop, wassail; gin &c (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee,
chocolate, cocoa, tea, the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock
beer, lager beer, Pilsener beer, schenck beer^; Brazil tea, cider,
claret, ice water, mate, mint julep [U.S.]; near beer, 3.2 beer, non-
alcoholic beverage.
eating house &c 189.
[person who eats] diner; hippophage; glutton &c 957.
V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to;
despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in,
tuck in [Slang]; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c 957; bite, champ,
munch, cranch^, craunch^, crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble.
live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse,
graze, crop, regale; carouse &c (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do
justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet.
break bread, break one’s fast; breakfast, lunch, dine, take tea,
drink in, drink up, drink one’s fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck
up; lap; swig; swill [Slang], chugalug [Slang], tipple &c (be drunken)
959; empty one’s glass, drain the cup; toss off, toss one’s glass; wash
down, crack a bottle, wet one’s whistle.
purvey &c 637.
Adj. eatable, edible, esculent^, comestible, alimentary; cereal,
cibarious^; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric;
succulent; potable, potulent^; bibulous.
omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous, graminivorous,
phytivorous; ichthyivorous; omophagic, omophagous; pantophagous,
phytophagous, xylophagous.
Phr. across the walnuts and the wine [Tennyson]; blessed hour of our
dinners! [O.
Meredith]; now good digestion wait on appetite, and health on
both! [Macbeth]; who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite? [Richard

299. Excretion — N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation,
exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation [Med.],
ecchymosis [Med.]; evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement, shit,
stools, crap [Vulg.]; bloody flux; cacation^; coeliac-flux, coeliac-
passion; dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation^, exudation;
diaphoresis; sewage; eccrinology [Med.].
saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism^, salivation, catarrh; diarrhoea;
ejecta, egesta [Biol.], sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c (uncleanness)
653 [Lat.].
hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c (egress) 295.
V. excrete &c (eject) 297; emanate &c (come out) 295.

300. [Forcible ingress.] Insertion — N. insertion, implantation,
introduction; insinuation &c (intervention) 228; planting, &c v.;
injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c 294;
immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c (water) 337;
interment &c 363.
clyster [Med.], enema, glyster^, lavage, lavement^.
V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject;
interject &c 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue,
graft, ingraft^, bud, plant, implant; dovetail.
obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press,
in, drive in, pop in, whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce^ &c
(make a hole) 260 [Obs.].
imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c (water) 337; dip,
plunge &c 310.
bury &c (inter) 363.
insert itself, lodge itself &c; plunge in medias res.
Adj. inserted &c v..

301. [Forcible egress.] Extraction — N. extraction; extracting &c v.;
removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.
evulsion^, avulsion^; wrench; expression, squeezing; extirpation,
extermination; ejection &c 297; export &c (egress) 295.
extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.
V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out,
pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub
up, rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up
by the roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate^; unroot^; uproot, pull
up, extirpate, dredge.
remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c (eject)
297; eviscerate &c 297.
express, squeeze out, press out.
Adj. extracted &c v..

302. [Motion through.] Passage — N. passage, transmission; permeation;
penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration; endosmose
exosmose^; endosmosis [Chem]; intercurrence^; ingress &c 294; egress &c
295; path &c 627; conduit &c 350; opening &c 260; journey &c 266;
voyage &c 267.
V. pass, pass through; perforate &c (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate,
thread, thrid^, enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over; cut
across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one’s way, thread
one’s way, worm one’s way, force one’s way; make a passage form a
passage; cut one’s way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit,
make way, clear the course; traverse, go over the ground.
Adj. passing &c v.; intercurrent^; endosmosmic^, endosmotic [Chem].
Adv. en passant &c (transit) 270 [Fr.].

303. [Motion beyond] Transcursion — N. transcursion^, transiliency^,
transgression; trespass; encroachment, infringement; extravagation^,
transcendence; redundancy &c 641.
V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to
the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon.
overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo^, override, overleap,
overjump^, overskip^, overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip, outleap,
outjump, outgo, outstep^, outrun, outride, outrival, outdo; beat, beat
hollow; distance; leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw into the
shade; exceed, transcend, surmount; soar &c (rise) 305.
encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, entrench on, intrench
on^; strain; stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon.
Adj. surpassing &c v..
Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

304. [motion short of] Shortcoming — N. shortcoming, failure; falling
short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go.
incompleteness &c 53; imperfection &c 651; insufficiency &c 640;
noncompletion &c 730; failure &c 732.
V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short, fall
short, stop short; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the
mark, keep within the compass.
break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to
nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss
the mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays.
Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth;
perfunctory &c (neglect) 460.
Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds;
behindhand; re infecta [Lat.]; to no purpose; for from it.
Phr. the bubble burst.

305. [Motion upwards] Ascent — N. ascent, ascension; rising &c 309;
acclivity, hill &c 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder
rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.
V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one’s way
up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; float up; bubble up; aspire.
climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade^, surmount; shin, shinny,
shinney; scale, scale the heights.
[cause to go up] raise, elevate &c 307.
go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off; spring up, pop up,
jump up, catapult upwards, explode upwards; hover, spire, plane, swim,
float, surge; leap &c 309.
Adj. rising &c v.. scandent^, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant^;
Adv. uphill.

306. [Motion downwards] Descent — N. descent, descension^, declension,
declination; fall; falling &c v.; slump; drop, plunge, plummet,
cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip, tilt,
trip, lurch; cropper, culbute^; titubation^, stumble; fate of Icarus.
avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.
declivity, dip, hill.
[equipment for descending by rappeling] rappel.
V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop, slip,
slide, rappel, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink,
droop, come down a peg; slump.
dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c 308; fall
prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c 308.
tumble, trip, stumble, titubate^, lurch, pitch, swag, topple,
topple over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump
down, come down a cropper.
Adj. descending &c v.; descendent; decurrent^, decursive^; labent^,
deciduous; nodding to its fall.
Adv. downhill, downwards.
Phr. the bottom fell out.

307. Elevation — N. elevation; raising &c v.; erection, lift;
sublevation^, upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c
(convexity) 250.
lever &c 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge,
dredger, dredging machine.
dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.
V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up,
perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear, upbear^,
upcast^, uphoist^, upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give a lift; exalt;
sublimate; place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.
escalate &c (increase) 35 102 194.
take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.
stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one’s feet; hold
oneself, hold one’s head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.
Adj. elevated &c v.; stilted, attollent^, rampant.
Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one’s legs, on one’s hind legs.

308. Depression — N. lowering &c v.; depression; dip &c (concavity)
252; abasement; detrusion^; reduction.
overthrow, overset^, overturn; upset; prostration, subversion,
bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion^, genuflection, kowtow,
obeisance, salaam.
V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a
peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce,
detrude^, pitch, precipitate.
overthrow, overturn, overset^; upset, subvert, prostate, level,
fell; cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull
down, cut down, knock down, hew down; raze, raze to the ground, rase to
the ground^; trample in the dust, pull about one’s ears.
sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy,
curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the
head, bow the head; cower; recline &c (be horizontal) 213.
Adj. depressed &c v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c (horizontal) 213;
Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lat.] [Lucan].

309. Leap — N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault, saltation^.
ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade^, gambado^; capriole,
demivolt^; buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade^.
kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea;
buckjumper^; wallaby.
V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp,
cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet,
caracole; foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c (amusement)
840; jump about &c (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe,
trip the light fantastic, dance oneself off one’s legs, dance off one’s
Adj. leaping &c v.; saltatory^, frisky.
Adv. on the light fantastic toe.
Phr. di salto in salto [It].

310. Plunge — N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c v.; diver.
V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a header;
make a plunge; bathe &c (water) 337.
submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the
get out of one’s depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone,
drop like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

311. [Curvilinear motion.] Circuition — N. circuition^, circulation;
turn, curvet; excursion, circumvention, circumnavigation,
circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c 629.
turning &c v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscrew.
V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right
about, turn round to the right about; turn on one’s heel; make a
circle, make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete
circle; go through 180 degrees, go through 360 degrees, pass through
180 degrees, pass through 360 degrees.
circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; put a girdle round
about the earth [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of.
wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c (convolution)
248; make a detour &c (circuit) 629.
Adj. turning &c v.; circuitous; circumforaneous^, circumfluent^.
Adv. round about.

312. [Motion in a continued circle.] Rotation — N. rotation,
revolution, spinning, gyration, turning about an axis, turning aound an
axis, circulation, roll; circumrotation^, circumvolution,
circumgyration^; volutation^, circination^, turbination^, pirouette,
verticity^, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge^;
countercurrent; Maelstrom, Charybdis; Ixion.
[rotating air] cyclone; tornado, whirlwind; dust devil.
[rotation of an automobile] spin-out.
axis, axis of rotation, swivel, pivot, pivot point; axle, spindle,
pin, hinge, pole, arbor, bobbin, mandrel; axle shaft; gymbal; hub, hub
of rotation.
[rotation and translation together] helix, helical motion.
[measure of rotation] angular momentum, angular velocity;
revolutions per minute, RPM.
[result of rotation] centrifugal force; surge; vertigo, dizzy
round; coriolus force.
[things that go around] carousel, merry-go-round; Ferris wheel;
top, dreidel^, teetotum; gyroscope; turntable, lazy suzan; screw,
whirligig, rollingstone^, water wheel, windmill; wheel, pulley wheel,
roulette wheel, potter’s wheel, pinwheel, gear; roller; flywheel; jack;
caster; centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, bench centrifuge, refrigerated
centrifuge, gas centrifuge, microfuge; drill, augur, oil rig; wagon
wheel, wheel, tire, tyre [Brit.].
[Science of rotary motion] trochilics^.
[person who rotates] whirling dervish.
V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve^;
circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle,
troll, bowl.
roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top,
spin like a teetotum^.
[of an automobile] spin out.
Adj. rotating &c v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory^, trochilic^,
vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose^.
Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution — N. evolution,
unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c (inversion)
V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine,
unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop.
Adj. evolving &c v.; evolved &c v..

314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation — N.
oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation;
undulation; pulsation; pulse.
alternation; coming and going &c v.; ebb and flow, flux and
reflux, ups and down.
fluctuation; vacillation &c (irresolution) 605.
wave, vibratiuncle^, swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance, lurch,
dodge; logan^, loggan^, rocking-stone, vibroscope^.
V. oscillate; vibrate, librate^; alternate, undulate, wave; rock, swing;
pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play;
wamble^, wabble^; dangle, swag.
fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake,
flicker; wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up
and down, bob up and down &c adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come
and go; vacillate &c 605; teeter [U.S.].
brandish, shake, flourish.
Adj. oscillating &c v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory^, libratory,
rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile^; pendulous.
Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon,
seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble^, in and out, from side to side, like
buckets in a well.

315. [Irregular motion] Agitation — N. agitation, stir, tremor, shake,
ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion^, trepidation, quiver,
quaver, dance; jactitation^, quassation^; shuffling &c v.; twitter,
flicker, flutter.
turbulence, perturbation; commotion, turmoil, disquiet; tumult,
tumultuation^; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus^, staggers,
megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology^, chorea, floccillation^, the jerks,
Vitus’s dance, tilmus^.
spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion.
disturbance, chaos &c (disorder) 59; restlessness &c
(changeableness) 149.
ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly,
cahotage^; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpool, vortex &c
312; whirlwind &c (wind) 349.
V. be agitated &c; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf; quiver,
quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire^, writhe, toss, shuffle, tumble,
stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an eel;
dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet,
prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm.
throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter,
flicker, bicker; bustle.
ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer.
toss about, jump about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an
aspen leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport
of the winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from
post to pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and
from pillar to post, keep between hawk and buzzard.
agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish,
flap, flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet,
hustle, disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip,
Adj. shaking &c v.; agitated tremulous; desultory, subsultory^;
saltatoric^; quasative^; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory^, convulsive,
unquiet, restless, all of a twitter.
Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily^ &c adj.^; per saltum [Lat.]; hop
skip and jump; in convulsions, in fits.
Phr. tempete dans un verre d’eau [Fr.].



316. Materiality — N. materiality, materialness; corporeity^,
corporality^; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood, plenum;
physical condition.
matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle,
parenchyma [Biol.], material, substratum, hyle^, corpus, pabulum; frame.
object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones;
materials &c 635.
[Science of matter] physics; somatology^, somatics; natural
philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism^; physical science,
philosophie positive [Fr.], materialism; materialist; physicist;
somatism^, somatist^.
Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic,
somatoscopic^; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.
objective, impersonal, nonsubjective^, neuter, unspiritual,

317. Immateriality — N. immateriality, immaterialness; incorporeity^,
spirituality; inextension^; astral plane.
personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c (soul) 450; astral
body; immaterialism^; spiritualism, spiritualist.
V. disembody, spiritualize.
Adj. immaterial, immateriate^; incorporeal, incorporal^; incorporate,
unfleshly^; supersensible^; asomatous^, unextended^; unembodied^,
disembodied; extramundane, unearthly; pneumatoscopic^; spiritual &c
(psychical) 450 [Obs.].
personal, subjective, nonobjective.

318. World — N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe, wide
world; cosmos; kosmos^; terraqueous globe^, sphere; macrocosm, megacosm^;
music of the spheres.
heavens, sky, welkin^, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry
host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions^; varuna; vault of
heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.
heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way,
galactic circle, via lactea [Lat.], ame no kawa [Jap.].
sun, orb of day, Apollo^, Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere; solar
system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night, Diana,
silver-footed queen; aerolite^, meteor; planetary ring; falling star,
shooting star; meteorite, uranolite^.
constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles’s wain, Big
Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion’s belt,
Cassiopea’s chair, Pleiades.
colures^, equator, ecliptic, orbit.
[Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology^;
cosmology, cosmography^, cosmogony; eidouranion^, orrery; geodesy &c
(measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer^; astronomer; observatory;
Adj. cosmic, cosmical^; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious^,
terraqueous^, terrene, terreous^, telluric, earthly, geotic^, under the
sun; sublunary^, subastral^.
solar, heliacal^; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery^; starry,
stellar; sidereal, sideral^; astral; nebular; uranic.
Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the
Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht [G.]; earth is but the
frozen echo of the silent voice of God [Hageman]; green calm below,
blue quietness above [Whittier]; hanging in a golden chain this pendant
World [Paradise Lost]; nothing in nature is unbeautiful [Tennyson];
silently as a dream the fabric rose [Cowper]; some touch of nature’s
genial glow [Scott]; this majestical roof fretted with golden fire
[Hamlet]; through knowledge we behold the World’s creation [Spenser].

319. Gravity — N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity^, pressure, load; burden, burthen^;
ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
weighing, ponderation^, trutination^; weights; avoirdupois weight,
troy weight, apothecaries’ weight; grain, scruple, drachma^, ounce,
pound, lb, arroba^, load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long ton,
metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod^.
[metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
[Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge^; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical balance,
two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
[Science of gravity] statics.
V. be heavy &c adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
[Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
Adj. weighty; weighing &c v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish^, lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
incumbent, superincumbent^.

320. Levity — N. levity; lightness &c adj.; imponderability, buoyancy,
feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
leaven, ferment, barm^, yeast.
lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot
air balloon.
convection, thermal draft, thermal.
V. be light &c adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
render light &c adj.; lighten, leaven.
Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous^, imponderable; astatic^,
weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose^, suberous^;
uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c v.; portable.
light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than
air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon



321. Density — N. density, solidity; solidness &c adj.;
impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity^;
cohesion &c 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude^.
specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer^.
condensation; caseation^; solidation^, solidification;
consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c (hardening)
323; crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate;
inspissation^; gelation, thickening &c v.. indivisibility,
indiscerptibility^, insolubility, indissolvableness.
solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete,
conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle,
cartilage; casein, crassamentum^; legumin^.
superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron
V. be dense &c adj.; become solid, render solid &c adj.; solidify,
solidate^; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate;
curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit,
cohere, crystallize; petrify &c (harden) 323.
condense, thicken, gel, inspissate^, incrassate^; compress,
squeeze, ram down, constipate.
Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c v.; caseous; pukka^; coherent, cohesive
&c 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive,
lumpish^; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous^;
incompressible; constipated; concrete &c (hard) 323; knotted, knotty;
gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous^, stuffy.
undissolved, unmelted^, unliquefied^, unthawed^.
indivisible, indiscerptible^, infrangible^, indissolvable^,
indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

322. Rarity — N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c 321;
subtility^; subtilty^, subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization^.
vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification^.
ether &c (gas) 334.
V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize^.
Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c 320; cavernous, spongy &c (hollow) 252.
rarefied &c v.; unsubstantial; uncompact^, incompressed^;

323. Hardness — N. hardness &c adj.; rigidity; renitence^, renitency;
inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity^.
induration, petrifaction; lapidification^, lapidescence^;
vitrification, ossification; crystallization.
stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz,
granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block,
board, deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought
iron; nail; brick, concrete; cement.
V. render hard &c adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper,
ossify, vitrify; accrust^.
Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark,
unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate,
indurated; gritty, proof.
adamant, adamantine, adamantean^; concrete, stony, granitic,
calculous, lithic^, vitreous; horny, corneous^; bony; osseous, ossific^;
cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c n.; stiff as buckram, stiff as a
poker; stiff as starch, stiff as as board.

324. Softness — N. softness, pliableness &c adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity^, malleability; ductility, tractility^;
extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity, flaccidity,
clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion,
pillow, feather bed, down, padding, wadding; foam.
mollification; softening &c v..
V. render soft &c adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper; mash,
knead, squash.
bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile^, tractable;
malleable, extensile, sequacious^, inelastic; aluminous^; remollient^.
yielding &c v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony^.
flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous^, medullary
[Anat.], argillaceous, mellow.
soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax,
tender as chicken.

325. Elasticity — N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
rubber, India rubber, Indian rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone,
gum elastic, baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-
S, plastic.
flexibility, Young’s modulus.
V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c adj.; bounce, spring
back &c (recoil) 277.
Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant;
ductile, stretchable, extendable.
Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

326. Inelasticity — N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity &c
325; inelasticity &c (softness) 324,
Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c (soft) 324; irresilient^.

327. Tenacity — N. {ant.
328} tenacity, toughness, strength; (cohesion) 46; grip, grasp,
stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity^; stubbornness &c (obstinacy);;
glue, cement, glutinousness^, sequaciousness^, viscidity,
(semiliquidity) 352.
leather; white leather, whitleather^; gristle, cartilage.
unbreakability, tensile strength.
V. be tenacious &c adj.; resist fracture.
grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.
Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious^, stringy, gristly
cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous^, tough as whitleather^; stubborn &c
(obstinate) 606.
unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

328. Brittleness — N. {ant.
327} brittleness &c adj.; fragility, friability, frangibility,
fissibility^; house of cards, house of glass.
V. be brittle &c adj.; live in a glass house.
break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short,
burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.
Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile, frail,
gimcrack^, shivery, fissile; splitting &c v.; lacerable^, splintery,
crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

329. [Structure.] Texture — N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
substance, stuff, compages^, parenchyma [Biol.]; constitution,
staple, organism.
[Science of structures] organography^, osteology, myology,
splanchnology^, neurology, angiography^, adeology^; angiography^,
texture, surface texture; intertexture^, contexture^; tissue,
grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c
(roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain;
coarseness of grain, dry goods.
silk, satin; muslin, burlap.
[Science of textures] histology.
Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.
rough, gritty; smooth.
smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

330. Pulverulence — N. powderiness^ [State of powder.], pulverulence^;
sandiness &c adj.; efflorescence; friability.
powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour,
farina, rice, paddy, spore, sporule^; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c
(smallness) 32; limature^, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus
slope, scobs^, magistery^, fine powder; flocculi [Lat.].
smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of
smoke, volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.
[Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution^, attenuation,
granulation, disintegration, subaction^, contusion, trituration [Chem],
levigation^, abrasion, detrition, multure^; limitation; tripsis^; filing
&c v.. [Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra^, gristmill,
grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder,
grindstone, kern^, quern^, koniology^.
V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c reduce to
powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate, triturate,
levigate^; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate, rasp, pound,
bray, bruise; contuse, contund^; beat, crush, cranch^, craunch^, crunch,
scranch^, crumble, disintegrate; attenuate &c 195.
Adj. powdery, pulverulent^, granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous,
branny^, furfuraceous^, flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous^, psammous^;
arenose^, arenarious^, arenaceous^; gritty, efflorescent, impalpable;
lentiginous^, lepidote^, sabuline^; sporaceous^, sporous^.
pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c v.;
attrite^; in pieces.

331. Friction — N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping &c
v.; confrication^, detrition, contrition^, affriction^, abrasion,
arrosion^, limature^, frication^, rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage;
roughness &c 256.
rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.
V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry, scour,
polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c (reduce to powder)
set one’s teeth on edge; rosin.
Adj. anatriptic^; attrite^.

332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication — N.
smoothness &c 255; unctuousness &c 355.
lubrication, lubrification^; anointment; oiling &c v.. synovia
[Anat.]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c 356; saliva;
V. lubricate, lubricitate^; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
Adj. lubricated &c v.; lubricous.

1. Fluids in General

333. Fluidity — N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c adj.^; gaseity &c
334 [Obs.].
fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity^, gravy, rheum, ichor^, sanies^; chyle [Med.].
solubility, solubleness^.
[Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics,
V. be fluid &c adj.; flow &c (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c 335.
Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous^; fluent
&c (flowing) 348.
liquefied &c 335; uncongealed; soluble.

334. Gaseity — N. gaseity^; vaporousness &c adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.
elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas^; volatile
alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.
[Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics^;
aerostatics^, aerodynamics.
gasmeter^, gasometer^; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound, (of a
V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c 336; diffuse.
Adj. gaseous, aeriform^, ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous, volatile,
evaporable^, flatulent.

335. Liquefaction — N. liquefaction; liquescence^, liquescency^;
melting &c (heat) 384; colliquation^, colliquefaction^; thaw; liquation^,
deliquation^, deliquescence; lixiviation^, dissolution.
solution, apozem^, lixivium^, infusion, flux.
solvent, menstruum, alkahest^.
V. render liquid &c 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c (heat) 384;
solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate^; hold in solution; condense,
precipitate, rain.
Adj. liquefied &c v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble,

336. Vaporization — N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation^; distillation, cupellation [Chem], cohobation,
sublimination^, exhalation; volatility.
vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride
of sodium^.
mister, spray.
bubble, effervescence.’
V. render gaseous &c 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate^; finestill^.
bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.
Adj. volatilized &c v.; reeking &c v.; volatile; evaporable^,
bubbly, effervescent, boiling.
2. Specific Fluids

337. Water — N. water; serum, serosity^; lymph; rheum; diluent; agua
[Sp.], aqua, pani^.
dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c v.; immersion^,
humectation^, infiltration, spargefaction^, affusion^, irrigation,
douche, balneation^, bath.
deluge &c (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.
V. be watery &c adj.; reek.
add water, water, wet; moisten &c 339; dilute, dip, immerse;
merge; immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep,
macerate, pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse^, splash, swash,
douse, drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge;
syringe, inject, gargle.
Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal^, diluent;
drenching &c v.; diluted &c v.; weak; wet &c (moist) 339.
Phr. the waters are out.

338. Air — N. air &c (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere^.
open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c 353.
weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
[Science of air] aerology, aerometry^, aeroscopy^, aeroscopy^,
aerography^; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics; eudioscope^,
baroscope^, aeroscope^, eudiometer^, barometer, aerometer^; aneroid,
baroscope^; weather gauge, weather glass, weather cock.
exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation^, aeronautics, aeronaut.
V. air, ventilate, fan &c (wind) 349.
Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c 349.
atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform^; meteorological; weatherwise^.
Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile [Fr.], al fresco; sub jove dio

339. Moisture — N. moisture; moistness &c adj.; humidity, humectation^;
madefaction^, dew; serein^; marsh &c 345; hygrometry, hygrometer.
V. moisten, wet; humect^, humectate^; sponge, damp, bedew; imbue,
imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c (water) 337.
be moist &c adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c (exude) 295.
Adj. moist, damp; watery &c 337; madid^, roric^; undried^, humid, sultry,
wet, dank, luggy^, dewy; roral^, rorid^; roscid^; juicy.
wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c
v.. swashy^, soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking, soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c (marshy) 345; irriguous^.

340. Dryness — N. dryness &c adj.; siccity^, aridity, drought, ebb
tide, low water.
exsiccation^, desiccation; arefaction^, dephlegmation^, drainage;
[chemical subs. which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.
[device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas
drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.
V. be dry &c adj.. render dry &c adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge,
swab, wipe; drain.
desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate^; parch.
kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.
be fine, hold up.
Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust^, arescent^; dried &c v.; undamped;
juiceless^, sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain, fine; dry as a
bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a biscuit.
water proof, water tight.
dehydrated, dessicated.

341. Ocean — N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, vasty deep;
wave, tide, &c (water in motion) 348.
hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton,
Naiad, Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic^, cotidal^.
Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

342. Land — N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese [Fr.], delta; tongue of
land, neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c (projection) 250;
highland &c (height) 206.
coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank^, seacoast, seabeach^; ironbound coast; loom of the
land; derelict; innings; alluvium, alluvion^; ancon.
riverbank, river bank, levee.
soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge^, chalk, gravel, mold,
subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.
acres; real estate &c (property) 780; landsman^.
V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land; come
ashore, go ashore, debark.
Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian;
alluvial; terrene &c (world) 318; landed, predial^, territorial;
geophilous^; ripicolous.
Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

343. Gulf. Lake — N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph^, bay, inlet,
bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet; frith^,
firth, ostiary^, mouth; lagune^, lagoon; indraught^; cove, creek; natural
harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt, gut, kyles^;
continental slope, continental shelf.
lake, loch, lough^, mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool, lin^,
puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water, sheet of
water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c
(store) 636; alberca^, barachois^, hog wallow [U.S.].
Adj. lacustrine^.

344. Plain — N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open country,
champaign country^; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert, wild,
steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold^, veldt; moor,
moorland; bush; plateau &c (level) 213; campagna^; alkali flat, llano;
mesa, mesilla [U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling prairie; vega
meadow, mead, haugh^, pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat,
plot, grassplat^, greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley, lay;
grounds; maidan^, agostadero^.
Adj. champaign^, alluvial; campestral^, campestrial^, campestrian^,

345. Marsh — N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish^, moss, fen, bog,
quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [U.S.],
cienaga^, jhil^, vlei^.
Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy^, poachy^, quaggy^, soft;
muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal^; moorish, moory; fenny.

346. Island — N. island, isle, islet, eyot^, ait^, holf^, reef, atoll,
breaker; archipelago; islander.
Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic^.
3. Fluids in Motion

347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream — N. stream &c (of water) 348, (of air)
V. flow &c 348; blow &c 349.

348. [Water in motion.] River — N. running water.
jet, spirt^, spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet
d’eau [Fr.]; sluice.
water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss^; lin^, linn^; ghyll^,
Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe^, cataclysm; debacle,
inundation, deluge; chute, washout.
rain, rainfall; serein^; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain,
drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology^, hyetography^; predominance of
Aquarius^, reign of St.
Swithin; mizzle^, drizzle, stillicidum^, plash; dropping &c v.;
falling weather; northeaster, hurricane, typhoon.
stream, course, flux, flow, profluence^; effluence &c (egress) 295;
defluxion^; flowing &c v.; current, tide, race, coulee.
spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill,
gullet, rillet^; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike^,
burn, beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.
geyser, spout, waterspout.
body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide,
high tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre^, hygre^; fresh, freshet;
indraught^, reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge^, whirlpool,
Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation^.
wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; anerythmon gelasma [Gr.];
beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell, surf, breakers,
white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas, cross sea,
long sea, short sea, chopping sea.
[Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics,
hydraulicostatics^; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology^.
irrigation &c (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart;
hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti^, mussuk^.
V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue; drop,
drip, dribble, plash, spirtle^, trill, trickle, distill, percolate;
stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash; guggle^,
murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray,
regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c (egress) 295.
rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks;
pour with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle^.
flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself,
[Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c (discharge) 297; shower down,
irrigate, drench &c (wet) 337; spill, splash.
[Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c (close) 261; obstruct &c 706.
Adj. fluent; diffluent^, profluent^, affluent; tidal; flowing &c v.;
meandering, meandry^, meandrous^; fluvial, fluviatile; streamy^, showery,
rainy, pluvial, stillicidous^; stillatitious^.
Phr. for men may come and men may go but I go on forever [Tennyson];
that old man river, he just keeps rolling along [Showboat].

349. [Air in motion] Wind — N. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus,
efflation^, eluvium^; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff, zephyr;
blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream; undercurrent.
gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane,
whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon^,
simoom; harmattan^, monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise^,
tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen
blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia^, chinook, foehn, khamsin^,
norther, vendaval^, wuther^.
windiness &c adj.; ventosity^; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly
weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare’s tail; thick squall, black
squall, white squall.
anemography^, aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane, weather-
vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope^.
sufflation^, insufflation^, perflation^, inflation, afflation^;
blowing, fanning &c v.; ventilation.
sneezing &c v.; errhine^; sternutative^, sternutatory^;
sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.
Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.
air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator,
punkah^; branchiae^, gills, flabellum^, vertilabrum^.
whiffle ball.
V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c n.;
wuther^; stream, issue.
respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff,
snuffle; sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.
fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate^; blow up.
Adj. blowing &c v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy,
tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c (violent) 173.
pulmonic [Med.], pulmonary.
Phr. lull’d by soft zephyrs [Pope]; the storm is up and all is on the
hazard [Julius Caesar]; the winds were wither’d in the stagnant air
[Byron]; while mocking winds are piping loud [Milton]; winged with red
lightning and tempestuous rage [Paradise Lost].

350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit — N. conduit,
channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito^,
aboideau^, aboiteau [Fr.], bito^; acequia^, acequiador^, acequiamadre^;
arroyo; adit^, aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter, pantile; flume, ingate^,
runner; lock-weir, tedge^; vena^; dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain,
sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough, kennel, siphon; piscina^; pipe &c (tube)
260; funnel; tunnel &c (passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe;
emunctory^, gully hole, artery, aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage^,
ajutage^; hose; gargoyle; gurgoyle^; penstock, weir; flood gate, water
gate; sluice, lock, valve; rose; waterworks.
Adj. vascular &c (with holes) 260.

351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe — N. air pipe, air
tube; airhole^, blowhole, breathinghole^, venthole; shaft, flue,
chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand^, trachea;
bronchus, bronchia [Med.]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle;
ventiduct^, ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe &c
(wind) 349; pipe &c (tube) 260; jhilmil^; smokestack.
screen, window screen.’ artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung


352. Semiliquidity — N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c adj.; viscidity,
viscosity; gummosity^, glutinosity^, mucosity^; spissitude^, crassitude^;
lentor^; adhesiveness &c (cohesion) 46.
inspissation^, incrassation^; thickening.
jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock^, fish glue; ichthyocol^,
ichthycolla^; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo; pituite^, lava; glair^,
starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream, protein^; treacle; gum, size, glue
(tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax.
emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c 339;
marsh &c 345.
V. inspissate^, incrassate^; thicken, mash, squash, churn, beat up.
Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose^; half melted, half frozen;
milky, muddy &c n.; lacteal, lactean^, lacteous^, lactescent^,
lactiferous^; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent, uliginous^.
gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous,
gelatin, mastic, amylaceous^, ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous;
sticky, tacky, gooey; slab, slabby^; lentous^, pituitous^; mucid^,
muculent^, mucous; gummy.

353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble [Cloud.] — N. bubble, foam,
froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm^, spindrift.
cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger,
rack, nimbus; cumulus, woolpack^, cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus,
cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare’s tale, dirty sky; curl
cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead.
[Science of clouds] nephelognosy^; nephograph^, nephology^.
effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c v.. nebula; cloudliness
&c (opacity) 426 [Obs.]; nebulosity &c (dimness) 422.
V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle^, gurgle;
effervesce, ferment, fizzle.
Adj. bubbling &c v.; frothy, nappy^, effervescent, sparkling, mousseux
[Fr.], frothy [Fr.Tr.], up.
cloudy &c n.; thunderheaded^; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.
Phr. the lowring element scowls o’er the darkened landscip [Paradise

354. Pulpiness — N. pulpiness &c adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd, pap,
rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume^.
mush, oatmeal, baby food.
Adj. pulpy &c n.; pultaceous^, grumous^; baccate^.

355. Unctuousness — N. unctuousness &c adj.; unctuosity^, lubricity;
ointment &c (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c 332.
V. oil &c (lubricate) 332.
Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous^; fat,
fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous^, pinguid,
lardaceous^; slippery.

356. Oil — N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard,
dripping exunge^, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine [Chem], oleagine^;
soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere^;
petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil;
vegetable oil, colza oil^, olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed
oil, soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat’s foot oil, train oil;
ointment, unguent, liniment; aceite^, amole^, Barbados tar^; fusel oil,
grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee^; heating oil, #2
oil, No.
2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel, gasoline,
naphtha; stearin.

356a. Resin — N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal^, mastic, magilp^, lacquer, japan.
artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange
resin, anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite^, Dowex [Chem],
V. varnish &c (overlay) 223.
Adj. resiny^, resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,


1. Vitality in general

357. Organization — N. organized world, organized nature; living
nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.
protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c 329;
organization, organism.
[Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic
chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c 368; botany; microbiology,
virology, bacteriology, mycology &c 369; naturalist.
archegenesis &c (production) 161 [Obs.]; antherozoid^, bioplasm^,
biotaxy^, chromosome, dysmeromorph^; ecology, oecology; erythroblast
[Physio.], gametangium^, gamete, germinal matter, invagination [Biol.];
isogamy^, oogamy^; karyaster^; macrogamete^, microgamete^; metabolism,
anabolism, catabolism; metaplasm^, ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation,
phylogeny, polymorphism, protozoa, spermary^, spermatozoon,
trophoplasm^, vacuole, vertebration^, zoogloea^, zygote.
Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
morphology, taxonomy.
Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic^, unsegmentic^, vacuolar,
zoogloeic^, zoogloeoid^.

358. Inorganization — N. mineral world, mineral kingdom; unorganized
matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
[Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy^,
geoscopy^; metallurgy, metallography^; lithology; oryctology^,
V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.
Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized^; lithoidal^; azoic; mineral.

359. Life — N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one’s nostrils;
oxygen, air.
[devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial
respirator, heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c 662.
lifeblood; Archeus^; existence &c 1.
vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c 163;
Prometheus; life to come &c (destiny) 152.
[Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
nourishment, staff of life &c (food) 298.
genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection,
reproduction (production) 161.
microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe,
obligate anaerobe, halophile [Micro.], methanogen [Micro.],
archaebacteria [Micro.], microaerophile [Micro.].
animal &c 366; vegetable &c 367.
artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.
[vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse,
preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.
V. be alive &c adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c (exist) 1; walk
the earth, strut and fret one’s hour upon the stage [Macbeth]; be
see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken;
revive; come to life.
give birth to &c (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate^; reanimate &c (restore) 660; keep alive,
keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support life.
hive nine lives like a cat.
Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative^; lively &c (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious of
life; full of life, yeasty.
vital, vitalic^; vivifying, vivified, &c v.; viable, zoetic^;
Adv. vivendi causa [Lat.].
Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat.] [Seneca]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat.] [Marial].

360. Death — N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure, obit,
release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality, morbidity.
end of life &c 67, cessation of life &c 142, loss of life,
extinction of life, ebb of life &c 359.
death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of
death, agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of
death, hand of death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day,
dying breath, dying agonies; chant du cygne [Fr.]; rigor mortis [Lat.];
Stygian shore.
King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c (necessity) 601;
Hell’s grim Tyrant [Pope].
euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay;
sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of
nature; suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c (disease) 655; death
blow &c (killing) 361.
necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c
(lamentation) 839.
V. die, expire, perish; meet one’s death, meet one’s end; pass away, be
taken; yield one’s breath, resign one’s breath; resign one’s being,
resign one’s life; end one’s days, end one’s life, end one’s earthly
career; breathe one’s last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart
this life; be no more &c adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one’s
life, lay down one’s life, relinquish one’s life, surrender one’s life;
drop into the grave, sink into the grave; close one’s eyes; fall dead,
drop dead, fall down dead, drop down dead; break one’s neck; give up
the ghost, yield up the ghost; be all over with one.
pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one’s
last sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one’s checks, pass in
one’s checks, hand in one’s chips, pass in one’s chips [U.S.]; join the
greater number, join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross
the Stygian ferry, cross the bar; go to one’s long account, go to one’s
last home, go to Davy Jones’s locker, go to the wall; receive one’s
death warrant, make one’s will, step out, die a natural death, go out
like the snuff of a candle; come to an untimely end; catch one’s death;
go off the hooks, kick the bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up
one’s toes; die a violent death &c (be killed) 361.
Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct;
late, gone, no more; exanimate^, inanimate; out of the world, taken off,
released; departed this life &c v.; dead and gone; dead as a doornail,
dead as a doorpost^, dead as a mutton, dead as a herring, dead as nits;
launched into eternity, gone to one’s eternal reward, gone to meet
one’s maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one’s fathers, numbered
with the dead.
dying &c v.; moribund, morient^; hippocratic; in articulo, in
extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux
abois [Fr.]; one one’s last legs, on one’s death bed; at the point of
death, at death’s door, at the last gasp; near one’s end, given over,
booked; with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the
stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem [Lat.].
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one’s days are
numbered, one’s hour is come, one’s race is run, one’s doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is
out of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat.]
[Vergil]; de mortuis nil nisi bonum [Lat.]; dulce et decorum est pro
patria mori [Lat.] [Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat.]
[Tacitus]; in adamantine chains shall death be bound [Pope]; mors
ultima linea rerum est [Lat.] [Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat.]
[Claudianus]; Spake the grisly Terror [Paradise Lost]; the lone couch
of this everlasting sleep [Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and

361. [Destruction of life; violent death.] Killing — N. killing &c v.;
homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation^, iccusion^;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage,
butchery; battue^.
massacre; fusillade, noyade^; thuggery, Thuggism^.
deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c
(capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.
butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur^; guet-a-pens; gallows,
executioner &c (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache^, hatchet man [U.S.],
highbinder [U.S.].
regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide^, uxoricide^, vaticide^.
suicide, felo de se^, hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath^; immolation,
auto da fe, holocaust.
suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c v.; lapidation^.
deadly weapon &c (arms) 727; Aceldama^.
[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics^; sport,
sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-
sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod;
slaughterhouse, meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.
fatal accident, violent death, casualty.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of
life; make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle,
do for.
strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop
the breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate^; stab,
run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the
edge of the sword.
shoot dead; blow one’s brains out; brain, knock on the head;
stone, lapidate^; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus,
give a coupe de grace.
behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c (execute) 972.
hunt, shoot &c n.. cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity,
send to one’s last account, sign one’s death warrant, strike the death
knell of.
give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck;
wade knee deep in blood, imbrue one’s hands in blood.
die a violent death, welter in one’s blood; dash out one’s brains,
blow out one’s brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary, sanguinolent^;
blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody, bloody
minded; ensanguined^, gory; thuggish.
mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous^, lethiferous^;
unhealthy &c 657; internecine; suicidal.
sporting; piscatorial, piscatory^.
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. assassination has never changed the history of the world

362. Corpse — N. corpse, corse^, carcass, cadaver, bones, skeleton, dry
bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae [Lat.], remains, mortal remains,
dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
shade, ghost, manes.
organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c 363; sapromyiophyllous^.

363. Interment — N. interment, burial, sepulture^; inhumation^;
obsequies, exequies^; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation.
funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march,
muffled drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral
oration, funeral sermon; epitaph.
graveclothes^, shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn^.
grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial
place, burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God’s acre; tope,
cromlech, barrow, tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house,
dead house; morgue; lich gate^; burning ghat^; crematorium, crematory;
dokhma^, mastaba^, potter’s field, stupa^, Tower of Silence.
sexton, gravedigger.
monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori [Lat.]; hatchment^, stone; obelisk, pyramid.
exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem
examination [Lat.]; zoothapsis^.
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm,
mummify; toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn^.
exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c v.; burial, funereal, funebrial^; mortuary, sepulchral,
cinerary^; elegiac; necroscopic^.
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem [Lat.]; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet [Lat.], ci-git [Fr.]; RIP; requiescat in pace [Lat.];
the lone couch of his everlasting sleep [Shelley]; without a grave-
unknell’d, uncoffin’d, and unknown [Byron]; in the dark union of
insensate dust [Byron]; the deep cold shadow of the tomb [Moore].
2. Special Vitality

364. Animality — N. animal life; animation, animality^, animalization^;
animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c 159.
Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

365. Vegetability^ — N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability^;
V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^.

366. Animal — N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
beast, brute, creature, critter [U.S.]; wight, created being;
creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.
[major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian,
fish, crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.
[microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c 193.
[reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur (extinct);
snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick^.
[amphibians] frog, toad.
[fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine,
[insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.
[arthropods] tardigrade, spider.
[classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped; [web-footed
animal] webfoot.
flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals;
game, ferae naturae [Lat.]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air,
denizens of the sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock^, duck, grouse,
plover, rail, snipe.
[domesticated mammals] horse &c (beast of burden) 271; cattle,
kine^, ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn;
sheep; lamb, lambkin^; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer,
stot^; tag, teg^; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.
[dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog,
watch dog, sheep dog, shepherd’s dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog,
toy dog, bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag
hound, deer hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel,
pointer, setter, retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel;
pug, poodle; turnspit; terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie
Dinmont; collie.
[cats–generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin^; gib cat, tom
[wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe,
roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar^.
[birds] bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer,
partlet^, rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes,
feathered songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch;
aberdevine^, cushat^, cygnet, ringdove^, siskin, swan, wood pigeon.
[undesirable animals] vermin, varmint [U.S.], pest.
Adj. animal, zoological equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy;
piscatory^, piscatorial; molluscous^, vermicular; gallinaceous,
rasorial^, solidungulate^, soliped^.

367. Vegetable — N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst^, frith^, holt,
weald^, park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage^,
tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood;
scrub; boscage, bosk^, ceja [Sp.], chaparal, motte [U.S.]; arboretum &c
bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze,
gorse, whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary^; sedge, rush,
weed; fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva^, mold;
growth; alfalfa, alfilaria^, banyan; blow, blowth^; floret^, petiole; pin
grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.
foliage, branch, bough, ramage^, stem, tigella^; spray &c 51; leaf.
flower, blossom, bine^; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^, vegitous^; herbaceous, herbal;
botanic^; sylvan, silvan^; arborary^, arboreous^, arborescent^,
arborical^; woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous^,
ligneous; wooden, leguminous; vosky^, cespitose^, turf-like, turfy;
endogenous, exogenous.
Phr. green-robed senators of mighty woods [Keats]; this is the forest
primeval [Longfellow].

368. [The science of animals.] Zoology — N. zoology, zoonomy^,
zoography^, zootomy^; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology,
comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology^,
malacology^, helminthology [Med.], entomology, oryctology^,
paleontology, mastology^, vermeology^; ornithotomy^, ichthyotomy^, &c;
zoologist &c
Adj. zoological &c n..

369. [The science of plants.] Botany — N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography^, phytology^,
phytotomy^; vegetable physiology, herborization^, dendrology, mycology,
fungology^, algology^; flora, romona; botanic garden &c (garden) 371
[Obs.]; hortus siccus [Lat.], herbarium, herbal.
botanist &c; herbist^, herbarist^, herbalist, herborist^,
V. botanize, herborize^.
Adj. botanical &c n.; botanic^.

370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry — N. husbandry,
taming &c v.; circuration^, zoohygiantics^; domestication, domesticity;
manege [Fr.], veterinary art; farriery^; breeding, pisciculture.
menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary^, beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
phthisozoics &c (killing) 361 [Obs.] [Destruction of animals];
euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.
neatherd^, cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper^; trainer,
breeder; apiarian^, apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher
[U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet,
veterinary surgeon.
cage &c (prison) 752; hencoop^, bird cage, cauf^; range, sheepfold,
&c (inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture — N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics^;
tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture,
arboriculture^, floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor^,
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil,
woodcutter, backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron^, viticulturist;
field, meadow, garden; botanic garden^, winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden;
nursery; green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot;
grassplot^, grassplat^, lawn; park &c (pleasure ground) 840; parterre,
shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery^, pinetum^, orchard;
vineyard, vinery; orangery^; farm &c (abode) 189.
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow,
harrow, rake, weed, lop and top; backset [U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic^.
arable, predial^, rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

372. Mankind — N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human kind,
human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny^, anthropography^,
anthroposophy^; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian.
human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow
creature, mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul,
living soul; earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae [Lat.];
quidam [Lat.].
people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community,
community at large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm;
commonweal, commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c
(commonalty) 876; population &c (inhabitant) 188.
tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.
cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. am I not a man and a brother? [Wedgwood].

373. Man — N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight^, swain, fellow, blade,
beau, elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c (married man) 903; Mr.,
mister; boy &c (youth) 129.
[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck,
horse, entire horse, stallion; gibcat^, tomcat; he goat, Billy goat;
ram, tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot^.
homosexual, gay, queen [Slang].
V. masculinize
Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
he, him, his.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat.] [Martial]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat.] [Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est
[Lat.] [Syrus].

374. Woman — N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
feminality^, muliebrity^; womanhood &c (adolescence) 131.
womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs.
lady, donna belle [Sp.], matron, dowager, goody, gammer^; Frau
[G.], frow^, Vrouw [Du.], rani; good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c
(marriage) 903; matronage, matronhood^.
bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
nymph, wench, grisette^; girl &c (youth) 129.
[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean^, henhussy^,
mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny
goat, tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
estrogen, oestrogen.
consanguinity &c 166 [Female relatives], paternity &c 11.
lesbian, dyke [Slang].
V. feminize.
Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic^, gynaecic^.
she, her, hers.’
Phr. a perfect woman nobly planned [Wordsworth]; a lovely lady
garmented in white [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Goethe]; earth’s noblest thing, a woman perfected [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer [Sp.]; she moves a goddess and she looks a queen
[Pope]; the beauty of a lovely woman is like music [G.
Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat.] [Vergil]; woman is
the lesser man [Tennyson].

374a. Sexuality [human] — N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c 373; female, femininity &c 374.
sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[Coll.]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection,
hard-on, boner.
masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-
orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
[sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
[person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
one-night stand.
pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore
pornography; pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; [magazines with sexual
photos], Playboy, Esquire, Hustler.
[unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism.
masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex, do
it, sleep together, fuck [Vulg.]; sleep around, play the field.
masturbate, jerk off [Coll.], jack off [Coll.], play with oneself.
have the hots [Coll.]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection,
get it up.
come, climax, ejaculate.
Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.

1. Sensation in general

375. Physical Sensibility — N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity,
aesthetics; moral sensibility &c 822.
sensation, impression; consciousness &c (knowledge) 490.
external senses.
V. be sensible of &c adj.; feel, perceive.
render sensible &c adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c (aware) 490.
acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. the touch’d needle trembles to the pole [Pope].

376. Physical Insensibility — N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia
[Med.], anaesthesia; sleep &c 823; hemiplegia^, motor paralysis;
vegetable state; coma.
anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous
oxide, laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen;
V. be insensible &c adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
render insensible &c adj.; anaesthetize^, blunt, pall, obtund^,
benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c n.; stupefy,
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient^, callous, thick-
skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse,
dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

377. Physical Pleasure — N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow
&c (support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of
downs, bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c (intemperance)
treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice [Fr.]; dainty &c 394;
bonne bouche [Fr.].
source of pleasure &c 829; happiness &c (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy, relish;
luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat up,
wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras [Fr.].
give pleasure &c 829.
Adj. enjoying &c v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable, cosy,
snug, in comfort, at ease.
pleasant, agreeable &c 829.
Adv. in comfort &c n.; on a bed of roses &c n.; at one’s ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Lat.] [Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus
[Lat.] [Juvenal].

378. Physical Pain — N. pain; suffering, sufferance, suffrance^; bodily
pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain;
mental suffering &c 828; dolour, ache; aching &c v.; smart; shoot,
shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache, heartburn,
angina, angina pectoris [Lat.]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort,
malaise; cephalalgia [Med.], earache, gout, ischiagra^, lumbago,
neuralgia, odontalgia^, otalgia^, podagra^, rheumatism, sciatica; tic
douloureux [Fr.], toothache, tormina^, torticollis^.
spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes^; crick, stitch; thrill,
convulsion, throe; throb &c (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation^, crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c n.; suffer,
ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate^; writhe,
wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate^,
excruciate^; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c (punish) 972;
grate on the ear &c (harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c n., in a state of pain; pained &c v.; gouty, podagric^,
painful; aching &c v.; sore, raw.
2. Special Sensation
(1) Touch

379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch — N. touch; tact, taction^,
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation^;
manipulation; massage.
[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus^.
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over;
manipulate, wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

380. Sensations of Touch — N. itching, pruritis [Med.] &c v.;
titillation, formication^, aura; stereognosis^.
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c v.; stereognostic^, titillative.

381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness — N. numbness &c (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.
(2) Heat

382. Heat — N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor, calidity^;
incalescence^, incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic.
phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze;
bonfire; firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny^; wildfire; sheet of fire,
lambent flame; devouring element; adiathermancy^; recalescence [Phys.].
summer, dog days; canicular days^; baking &c 384; heat, white heat,
tropical heat, Afric heat^, Bengal heat^, summer heat, blood heat;
sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c 384.
sun &c (luminary) 423.
[Science of heat] pyrology^; thermology^, thermotics^,
thermodynamics; thermometer &c 389.
[thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie,
kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm,
[units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees
centigrade, degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.
V. be hot &c adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame;
smolder; parch, fume, pant.
heat &c (make hot) 384; recalesce^; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
sunny, torrid, tropical, estival^, canicular^, steamy; close,
sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c v.;
baking &c 384.
red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c v.. hot, piping hot;
like a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot
enough to roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.
fiery; incandescent, incalescent^; candent^, ebullient, glowing,
smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c v.; in flames, blazing, in a blaze;
alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished^; smoldering; in a
heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific^;
sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a toast, warm as
volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal^, isothermic^, isotheral^.
Phr. not a breath of air; whirlwinds of tempestuous fire [Paradise

383. Cold — N. cold, coldness &c adj.; frigidity, inclemency, fresco.
winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-
chill factor.
[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost,
hard frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U.S.], lolly [U.S.]; icicle,
thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe
berg; glacier; nev_ee, serac^; pruina^.
[cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen,
liquid helium.
[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c adj.; chill; shivering &c v.;
goose skin, horripilation^; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness,
V. be cold &c adj.; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder,
didder^, quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.
freeze &c (render cold) 385; horripilate^, make the skin crawl,
give one goose flesh.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid^; fresh, keen,
bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous^, cutting, nipping,
piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c (made cold) 385; chilled to
the bone, shivering &c v.; aguish, transi de froid [Fr.]; frostbitten,
frost-bound, frost-nipped.
cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold
as a frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool
as custard.
icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose^, wintry, brumal^,
hibernal^, boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal^; hyperborean, hyperboreal^;
icebound; frozen out.
unwarmed^, unthawed^; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal^, isocheimenal^,
frozen, numb, frost-bitten.
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c adj.; pierre fendre [Fr.];

384. Calefaction — N. increase of temperature; heating &c v.;
calefaction^, tepefaction^, torrefaction^; melting, fusion; liquefaction
&c 335; burning &c v.; ambustion^, combustion; incension^, accension^;
concremation^, cremation; scorification^; cautery, cauterization;
ustulation^, calcination; cracking, refining; incineration, cineration^;
carbonization; cupellation [Chem].
ignition, inflammation, adustion^, flagration^; deflagration,
conflagration; empyrosis^, incendiarism; arson; auto dafe [Fr.].
boiling &c v.; coction^, ebullition, estuation^, elixation^,
decoction; ebullioscope^; geyser; distillation (vaporization) 336.
furnace &c 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c (lining) 224;
clothing &c 225.
still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower,
cracking tower.
match &c (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse [Fr.]; [biological
effects resembling the effects of heat] [substances causing a burning
sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer^; caustic, lunar
caustic, alkali, apozem^, moxa^; acid, aqua fortis [Lat.], aqua regia;
catheretic^, nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid, nitromuriatic acid;
radioactivity, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays,
radiation, cosmic radiation, background radiation, radioactive
isotopes, tritium, uranium, plutonium, radon, radium.
sunstroke, coup de soleil [Fr.]; insolation.
[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra
cotta [Sp.], brick, clinker.
[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.
[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal;
wood alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha,
fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.
inflammability, combustibility.
[Transmission of heat] diathermancy^, transcalency^, conduction;
convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity, conductivity.
[effects of heat 2] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive^, foment; make hot &c 382; sun oneself,
go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.
fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle,
relume^; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the
fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.
melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c 335.
burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake,
torrefy^, scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char,
calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify^; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder;
commit to the flames, consign to the flames.
boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to
take fire, catch fire; blaze &c (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c v.; molten, sodden; r_echauff_e; heating &c v.; adust^.
inflammable, combustible; diathermal^, diathermanous^; burnt &c v.;
volcanic, radioactive.

385. Refrigeration — N. refrigeration, infrigidation^, reduction of
temperature; cooling &c v.; congelation^, conglaciation^; ice &c 383;
solidification &c (density) 321; ice box (refrigerator) 385.
extincteur [Fr.]; fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-
flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade
(incombustibility) 388.1.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.^. (insulation) 388.1.
air conditioning [residential cooling], central air conditioning;
air conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate^,
nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one’s teeth chatter, damp, slack quench;
put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out (incombustibility)
Adj. cooled &c v.; frozen out; cooling &c v.; frigorific^.

386. Furnace — N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth, focus,
combustion chamber; athanor^, hypocaust^, reverberatory; volcano; forge,
fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier^, salamander,
heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn,
kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons;
muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat.
[steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.
fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-
irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose^; poker, tongs,
shovel, ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan,
stew-pan, backlog.
[area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.
[residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin
stove, pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam
heat, hot water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat
pump; solar heat, convective heat.
hothouse, bakehouse^, washhouse^; laundry; conservatory; sudatory^;
Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath, sauna, warm bath;

387. Refrigerator — N. refrigerator, refrigeratory^; frigidarium^; cold
storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox;
cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.
freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer,
freezing mixture [refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes,
blocks of ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone,
liquid helium.

388. Fuel — N. fuel, firing, combustible.
[solid fuels] coal, wallsend^, anthracite, culm^, coke, carbon,
charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing,
faggot, log; cinder &c (products of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder,
touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel,
fireball, brand; amadou^, bavin^; blind coal, glance coal; German
tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U.S.]; solid fueled rocket.
[fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil;
lamp oil, whale oil.
[liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline,
nitromethane, petrol, gas, juice [Coll.], gasohol, alcohol, ethanol,
methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, number 2 oil,
number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse fuel, liquid
hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.
[gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas,
propane, butane, hydrogen.
brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve^,
vesuvian, vesta^, fusee, locofoco^; linstock^.
candle &c (luminary) 423; oil &c (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high specific
impulse; heat of combustion,

388a. Insulation [Fire extinction] {ant.
of 388} — N. insulation, incombustible material, noncombustible
material; fire retardant, flame retardant; fire wall, fire door.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.. extincteur [Fr.];
fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-flax, mountain-flax;
asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater, fire department, fire
brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and ladder, aerial
ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
[forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water
wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
[warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm, [laws to prevent
fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire inspector; code
violation, citation.
V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out;
douse, snuff, snuff out, blow out.
fireproof, flameproof.
Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable, unflammable^;
Phr. fight fire with fire

389. Thermometer — N. thermometer, thermometrograph^, mercury
thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb
thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer [G.], gas
thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator;
thermopile, thermoscope^; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter;
thermistor, thermocouple.
[temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.
(3) Taste

390. Taste — N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor^, sapidity^; twang, smack, smatch^; aftertaste, tang.
tasting; degustation, gustation.
palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch^, smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate &c
(savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific^; gustable^, gustatory; gustful^; strong, gamy;
palatable &c 394.

391. Insipidity — N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c adj..
V. be tasteless &c adj..
Adj. bland, void of taste &c 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless^,
savorless; ingustible^, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat,
vapid, fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted^.

392. Pungency — N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut-gout,
strong taste, twang, race.
sharpness &c adj.; acrimony; roughness &c (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c 395.
mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c (condiment) 393; niter,
saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392.1; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac^,
sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401.1.
dram, cordial, nip.
nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar^; cigar, cigarette;
weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid^, negro head, old
soldier, rappee^, stogy^.
V. be pungent &c adj.; bite the tongue.
render pungent &c adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle,
brine, devil.
smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-seasoned;
gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant; spicy;
seasoned &c v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating^, escharotic^,
meracious^; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c (sour) 397; unsavory &c

392a. Saltiness — N. saltiness.
niter, saltpeter, brine.
Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot’s wife.
salty, racy (indecent) 961.
Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

392b. Bitterness — N. bitterness, acridness^, acridity, acrimony;
caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent bitters.
Angostura [additive for alcoholic beverages], aromatic bitters.
sourness &c 397; pungency &c 392.
[bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

393. Condiment — N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
[Condiments] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black
pepper, white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante [Fr.]; caviare,
onion, garlic, pickle; achar^, allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper,
green pepper; chutney; cubeb^, pimento.
[capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
[herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
[fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
[from pods] paprika.
[from flower stigmas] saffron.
[from roots] ginger, turmeric.
V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c (render pungent) 392.

394. Savoriness — N. savoriness &c adj.; good taste, deliciousness,
relish, zest; appetizer.
tidbit, titbit^, dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d’ouvres [Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche [Fr.]; game, turtle,
venison; delicatessen.
V. be savory &c adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
render palatable &c adj.. relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one’s taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful^, toothsome; gustful^,
appetizing, lickerish^, delicate, exquisite, rich, luscious, ambrosial,
scrumptious, delightful.
Adv. per amusare la bocca [It]
Phr. cela se laisse manger [Fr.].

395. Unsavoriness — N. unsavoriness &c adj.; amaritude^; acrimony,
acridity (bitterness) 392.2; roughness &c (sour) 397; acerbity,
austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia^, aloes; marah^; sickener^.
V. be unpalatable &c adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet^; ill-flavored; bitter,
bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c 830.

396. Sweetness — N. sweetness, dulcitude^.
sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture^, jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson,
glucose; maple sirup^, maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai^, sorghum,
nectar; hydromel^, mead, meade^, metheglin^, honeysuckle, liqueur,
sweet wine, aperitif.
[sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
[sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart,
puff, pudding (food) 298.
dulcification^, dulcoration^.
sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame,
Sweet’N Low.
V. be sweet &c adj.. render sweet &c adj.; sweeten; edulcorate^;
dulcorate^, dulcify^; candy; mull.
Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous^; dulcet, candied, honied^,
luscious, lush, nectarious^, melliferous^; sweetened &c v.. sweet as a
nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
sickly sweet.
Phr. eau sucr_ee [Fr.]; sweets to the sweet [Hamlet].

397. Sourness — N. sourness &c adj.; acid, acidity, low pH; acetous
fermentation, lactic fermentation.
vinegar, verjuice^, crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c adj.; set the teeth on edge.
render sour &c adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose^; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent^, subacid
[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
Phr. sour as a lemon.
(4) Odor

398. Odor — N. odor, smell, odorament^, scent, effluvium; emanation,
exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor^, redolence.
sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c v.; olfaction,
[pleasant odor] fragrance &c 400.
[animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
[smell detected by a hound] spoor.
V. have an odor &c n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c n.; reek, reek of; scent.
smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent^, nidorous^, pungent; putrid, foul.
[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

399. Inodorousness — N. inodorousness^; absence of smell, want of
deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c adj.^; not smell.
Adj. inodorous^, onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting smell &c
deodorized, deodorizing.

400. Fragrance — N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet,
essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
agalloch^, agallochium^; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac^, calambour^;
champak^, horehound, lign-aloes^, marrubium^, mint, muskrat, napha
water^, olibanum^, spirit of myrcia^.
essential oil.
incense; musk, frankincense; pastil^, pastille; myrrh, perfumes of
Arabia^; otto^, ottar^, attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil^;
nosegay; scentbag^; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de Cologne
[Fr.], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion; thurification^.
[fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.
V. be fragrant &c adj.; have a perfume &c n.; smell sweet.
scent [render fragrant], perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented,
sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory^; thuriferous;
fragrant as a rose, muscadine^, ambrosial.

401. Fetor — N. fetor^; bad &c adj.. smell, bad odor; stench, stink;
foul odor, malodor; empyreuma^; mustiness &c adj.; rancidity; foulness
&c (uncleanness) 653.
stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida^; fungus, garlic; stinkpot;
fitchet^, fitchew^, fourmart^, peccary.
acridity &c 401.1.
V. have a bad smell &c n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty^, tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy^; olid^,
olidous^; nidorous^; smelling, stinking; putrid &c 653; suffocating,
mephitic; empyreumatic^.

401a. Acridity — N. acridity, astringency, bite.
[acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c 392.2.
(5) Sound

402. Sound — N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation, tone;
cadence; sonorousness &c adj.; audibility; resonance &c 408; voice &c
580; aspirate; ideophone^; rough breathing.
[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography^; diacoustics^, diaphonics^; phonetism^.
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous^; sonorous, sonorific^; resonant, audible,
distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic^.
Phr. a thousand trills and quivering sounds [Addison]; forensis
strepitus [Lat.].

403. Silence — N. silence; stillness &c (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c adj.; hold one’s tongue &c (not speak) 585.
render silent &c adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c v.; mute &c
soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c adj.; sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. hush!, silence!, soft!, whist!, tush!, chut!^, tut!, pax! [Lat.],
be quiet!, be silent!, be still!, shut up! [Slang]; chup!^, chup rao!^,
tace! [It],
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so quiet
you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [G.]; le silence
est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [Fr.]; le silence est le
parti le plus sar de celui se d_efie de soi-meme [Fr.]; silence more
musical than any song [C.G.
Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant [Lat.]; better to be silent and
thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.

404. Loudness — N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation^, roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery^, fracas, charivari^, trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets,
fanfare, tintamarre^, peal, swell, blast, larum^, boom; bang (explosion)
406; resonance &c 408.
vociferation, hullabaloo, &c 411; lungs; Stentor.
artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare,
fulminate, roar; resound &c 408.
speak up, shout &c (vociferate) 411; bellow &c (cry as an animal)
rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring
in the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend
the ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre [Fr.];
make one’s windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes,
startle the echoes; wake the dead.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full, powerful,
noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous^; thundering, deafening &c v.;
trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-deafening; piercing;
obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead, enough to
wake seven sleepers.
shrill &c 410 clamorous &c (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c adj.. aloud; at the top of one’s voice, at the top of
one’s lungs, lustily, in full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; the deep dread-bolted thunder [Lear].

405. Faintness — N. faintness &c adj.; faint sound, whisper, breath;
undertone, underbreath^; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; still small
hoarseness &c adj.; raucity^.
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate^.
steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing
&c v.; whispered &c v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c (melodious) 413;
susurrant^, susurrous^.
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce [Lat.], between the
teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine^; out of earshot
inaudibly &c adj..

406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap — N. snap &c v.; rapping &c v.;
decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
[explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT,
cordite, trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate
(arms) 727.
whack, wham, pow.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham; brustle^;
burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
blow up, blow; detonate.
Adj. rapping &c v..
Int. kaboom!, whamo!, Heewhack!, pow!,

407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll — N. roll &c v.; drumming
&c v.; berloque^, bombination^, rumbling; tattoo, drumroll; dingdong;
tantara^; rataplan^; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-tat; rubadub; pitapat;
quaver, clutter, charivari^, racket; cuckoo; repetition &c 104; peal of
bells, devil’s tattoo; reverberation &c 408.
[sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
hum, purr.
[animals that hum] hummingbird.
[animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack; bombinate^.
hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c v.; monotonous &c (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

408. Resonance — N. resonance; ring &c v.; ringing, tintinabulation &c
v.; reflexion [Brit.], reflection, reverberation; echo, reecho; zap,
zot [Coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.
low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo [It]; baritone, barytone^; contralto.
[device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.
[ringing in the ears] tinnitus [Med.].
[devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer;
gong, cymbals (musical instruments) 417.
[physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency,
coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding
board, tuning fork.
[electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection;
resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c [chemical resonance] resonant
structure, aromaticity, alternating double bonds, non-bonded resonance;
pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond, (valence).
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle^, chink,
clink; tink^, tinkle; chime; gurgle &c 405; plash, goggle, echo, ring in
the ear.
Adj. resounding &c v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient^, tintinnabulary;
sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed, vibrant;
hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c (harsh) 410.
Phr. sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh [Hamlet]; echoing down
the mountain and through the dell.

408a. Nonresonance^ — N. thud, thump, dead sound; nonresonance^;
muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound, deaden
the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant^, dead; dampened, muffled.

409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation — N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c v.; sternutation; high note &c 410.
[animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
[animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
[inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air
valve, pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from
tires, punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam
release valve.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c v.; wheezy; sternutative^.

410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor — N. creak &c v.; creaking &c v.;
discord, &c 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c adj.; cacophony;
acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto,
penny trumpet, voce di testa [It].
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c (cry) 411; yelp &c (animal sound) 412; buzz &c (hiss) 409.
set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles [Fr.]; pierce the
ears, split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the
ear, jar upon the ear.
Adj. creaking &c v.; stridulous^, harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous^,
rough, gruff, grum^, sepulchral, hollow.
sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c 414; cacophonous.

411. Cry — N. cry &c v.; voice &c (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c
(animal) 412.
vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry,
plaint; lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak^, shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal,
squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup^.
cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
snore, snort; grunt &c (animal sounds) 412.
vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing
out, cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one’s voice,
shout at the top of one’s voice, shout at the pitch of one’s breath,
thunder at the pitch of one’s breath; s’_egosiller; strain the throat,
strain the voice, strain the lungs; give a cry &c
Adj. crying &c v.; clamant^, clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c (loud)
404; open-mouthed.

412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation — N. cry &c v.; crying &c v.; bowwow,
ululation, latration^, belling; reboation^; wood-note; insect cry,
fritiniancy^, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
wailing (lamentation) 839.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow^; growl, snarl.
[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog];
bay, bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr^, yawl,
snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle^; snort [pig, hog, swine,
horse]; squeak, [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey,
mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat];
caterwaul, pule [cats]; baa^, bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle];
troat^, croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack
[duck]; honk, gaggle, guggle [goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech,
[crow]; cackle, cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle;
hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp, cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill,
tweet, pipe, whistle [small birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz
[flying insects, bugs]; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter^; ratatat
Adj. crying &c v.; blatant, latrant^, remugient^, mugient^; deep-mouthed,
full-mouthed; rebellowing^, reboant^.
Adv. in full cry.

413. Melody. Concord — N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme &c (poetry)
pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale^, enharmonic
scale^; key, clef, chords.
modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato^,
appoggiatura^; acciaccatura^.
note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high
note &c (shrillness) 410; low note &c 408; interval; semitone; second,
third, fourth &c; diatessaron^.
breve, semibreve [Mus.], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver,
demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.
tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic^,
mediant^, dominant; submediant^, subdominant^; octave, tetrachord^; major
key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode;
passage, phrase.
concord, harmony; emmeleia^; unison, unisonance^; chime, homophony;
euphony, euphonism^; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass,
fundamental-bass; counterpoint; faburden^.
piece of music &c 415 [Fr.]; composer, harmonist^, contrapuntist
(musician) 416.
V. be harmonious &c adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize^, transpose; put
in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical^; in concord &c n., in tune, in concert;
unisonant^, concentual^, symphonizing^, isotonic, homophonous^, assonant;
ariose^, consonant.
measured, rhythmical, diatonic^, chromatic, enharmonic^.
melodious, musical; melic^; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet,
canorous^; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery;
euphonious, euphonic, euphonical^; symphonious; enchanting &c (pleasure-
giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c adj..
Phr. the hidden soul of harmony [Milton].

414. Discord — N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony, want of
harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c 410.
[Confused sounds], Babel, Dutch concert, cat’s concert;
marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c adj.; jar &c (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant^; out of tune, tuneless; unmusical,
untunable^; unmelodious, immelodious^; unharmonious^, inharmonious;
singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c 410; jarring.

415. Music — N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c 413;
aria, arietta^; piece of music [Fr.], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo,
rondeau [Fr.]; pastorale, cavatina^, roulade^, fantasia, concerto,
overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon,
quodlibet, serenade, notturno [It], dithyramb; opera, operetta;
oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [It], toccata,
Vorspiel [G.].
instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and
tweedledee, band, orchestra; concerted piece [Fr.], potpourri,
vocal music, vocalism^; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song
&c (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet^, cantata, bravura, lay, ballad,
ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo^, solfeggio^.
Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c adv.;
minuet; siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c (lament)
839; pibroch^; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c (dance) 840.
solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett^; septett^; part song,
descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon^,
antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon^, drone,
morceau^, terzetto^.
composer &c 413; musician &c 416.
V. compose, perform &c 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino^; alla capella [It];
maestoso^, moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso^, vivace^, veloce^;
presto, prestissimo^; con brio; capriccioso^; scherzo, scherzando^;
legato, staccato, crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando^, affettuoso^;
obbligato; pizzicato; desto^.
Phr. in notes by distance made more sweet [Collins]; like the faint
exquisite music of a dream [Moore]; music arose with its voluptuous
swell [Byron]; music is the universal language of mankind [Longfellow];
music’s golden tongue [Keats]; the speech of angels [Carlyle]; will
sing the savageness out of a bear [Othello]; music hath charms to
soothe the savage beast.

416. Musician [Performance of Music.] — N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c (poet) 597; [specific types of
musicians] accompanist, accordionist, instrumentalist, organist,
pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler, fifer^, trumpeter, piper,
drummer; catgut scraper.
band, orchestral waits.
vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter^,
chauntress^, songstress; cantatrice^.
choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel [G.].
nightingale, philomel^, thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo^, the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
composer &c 413.
performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization^.
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike the
lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second;
compose, set to music, arrange.
sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt,
purl, quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa^; intone.
have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c (music) 415.

417. Musical Instruments — N. musical instruments; band; string-band,
brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina^.
[Stringed instruments], monochord^, polychord^; harp, lyre, lute,
archlute^; mandola^, mandolin, mandoline^; guitar; zither; cither^,
cithern^; gittern^, rebeck^, bandurria^, bandura, banjo; bina^, vina^;
viol, violin, fiddle, kit; viola, viola d’amore [Fr.], viola di
gamba [It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol;
theorbo^, double base, contrabasso^, violone^, psaltery [Slang]; bow,
piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord^,
manichord^; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle^,
pianino^, Eolian harp.
[Wind instruments]; organ, harmonium, harmoniphon^; American
organ^, barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina^, concertina;
humming top.
flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet^; basset horn,
corno di bassetto [It], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais [Fr.], corno
Inglese^, bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto^, serpent, bass
clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed
instrument; sirene^, pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet^; whistle, catcall;
doodlesack^, harmoniphone^.
horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean^, clarion,
trumpet, trombone, ophicleide^; French horn, saxophone, sax [Slang],
buglehorn^, saxhorn, flugelhorn^, althorn^, helicanhorn^, posthorn^;
sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba^.
[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour^, tambourine,
tamborine^; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret^, tabourine^, taborin^; side
drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani^; tymbal^, timbrel^, castanet, bones;
musical glasses, musical stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle;
tam-tam, zambomba^.
[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew’s harp, musical
box, harmonicon^, xylophone.
sordine^, sordet^; sourdine^, sourdet^; mute.

418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing — N. hearing &c v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct
ear, musical ear; ear for music.
ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
[devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
[distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot,
hearing distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
[devices for talking beyond hearing distance: list] telephone,
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone,
radiophone, wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio,
police radio, two-way radio, walkie-talkie [Mil.], handie-talkie,
citizen’s band, CB, amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police
band, ship-to-shore radio, airplane radio, control tower communication;
(communication) 525, 527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices [devices
for recording and reproducing recorded sound], phonograph, gramophone,
megaphone, phonorganon^.
[device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,
directional microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
[devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals]
phonograph needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head
(electronic devices).
hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
auditory, audience.
[science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
[physicians specializing in hearing] otologist,
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound,
prick up one’s ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c (resound) 408.
Adj. hearing &c v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus [Lat.].
Int. hark, hark ye!, hear!, list, listen!, O yes!, Oyez!, listen up
[Coll.]; listen here!, hear ye!, attention!, achtung [G.].

419. Deafness — N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity^;
inaudibility, inaudibleness^.
V. be deaf &c adj.; have no ear; shut one’s ears, stop one’s ears,
close one’s ears; turn a deaf ear to.
render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless^, surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing; deaf-mute,
stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an adder, deaf
as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker^.
inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.
(6) Light

420. Light — N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight,
starlight, sunlight &c (luminary) 432; daylight, broad daylight,
noontide light; noontide, noonday, noonday sun.
glow &c v.; glimmering &c v.; glint; play of light, flood of
light; phosphorescence, lambent flame.
flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c v.; emication^,
scintillation, flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration^; flame &c (fire)
382; lightning, levin^, ignis fatuus [Lat.], &c (luminary) 423.
luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion [Brit.], reflection; gloss,
tinsel, spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence,
refulgence; fulgor^, fulgidity^; dazzlement^, resplendence,
transplendency^; luminousness &c adj.; luminosity; lucidity; renitency^,
nitency^; radiance, radiation; irradiation, illumination.
actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography,
heliography; photometer &c 445.
[Science of light] optics; photology^, photometry; dioptrics^,
[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur^, clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare, flare
up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c adj.; reflect light, daze,
dazzle, bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
clear up, brighten.
lighten, enlighten; levin^; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon;
give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in,
throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon;
illume^, illumine, illuminate; relume^, strike a light; kindle &c (set
fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c v.; luminous, luminiferous^; lucid, lucent, luculent^,
lucific^, luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent^,
nitid^, lustrous, shiny, beamy^, scintillant^, radiant, lambent; sheen,
sheeny; glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday,
tide; cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured^.
gairish^, garish; resplendent, transplendent^; refulgent,
effulgent; fulgid^, fulgent^; relucent^, splendid, blazing, in a blaze,
ablaze, rutilant^, meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow.
bright as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday,
bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday.
actinic; photogenic, graphic; heliographic; heliophagous^.
Phr. a day for gods to stoop and men to soar [Tennyson]; dark with
excessive bright [Milton].

421. Darkness — N. darkness &c adj., absence of light; blackness &c
(dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c (dimness) 422.
Cimmerian darkness^, Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of
night; blind man’s holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be
felt; palpable obscure; Erebus [Lat.]; the jaws of darkness [Midsummer
Night’s Dream]; sablevested night [Milton].
shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy^.
obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration^;
obtenebration^, offuscation^, caligation^; extinction; eclipse, total
eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c (light) 420.
[perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum [Phys.]; black
hole; dark star; dark matter, cold dark matter.
V. be dark &c adj.. darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower;
overcast, overshadow; eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate^; obumbrate^,
adumbrate; cast into the shade becloud, bedim^, bedarken^; cast a shade,
throw a shade, spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a
shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.
extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off
the lights, switch off the lights.
Adj. dark, darksome^, darkling; obscure, tenebrious^, sombrous^, pitch
dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous^; black &c (in color) 431.
sunless, lightless &c (sun) (light), &c 423; somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c (illuminate) &c 420 [Obs.]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome^; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c (dim) 422;
cloudy &c (opaque) 426; darkened; &c v.. dark as pitch, dark as a pit,
dark as Erebus [Lat.].
benighted; noctivagant^, noctivagous^.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. brief as the lightning in the collied night [M.
D.]; eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature [Paradise Lost];
the blackness of the noonday night [Longfellow]; the prayer of Ajax was
for light [Longfellow].

422. Dimness — N. dimness &c adj.; darkness &c 421; paleness &c (light
color) 429.
half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of
a shade; glimmer, gliming^; nebulosity; cloud &c 353; eclipse.
aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut
time^; break of day, daybreak, dawn.
moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade^, moonshine; starlight, owl’s light,
candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
render dim &c adj.; dim, bedim^, obscure; darken, tone down.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c (opaque) 426;
blear; muggy^, fuliginous^; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated^, overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c v.. pale &c
(colorless) 429; confused &c (invisible) 447.

423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary — N. luminary;
light &c 420; flame &c (fire) 382.
spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.
sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo^, Aurora; star, orb; meteor,
falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula,
Aldebaran^; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion^; day star,
morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus; sun
dog^; Venus.
aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern
lights, aurora australis.
lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning,
summer lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [G.]; [chemical substances
giving off light without burning] phosphorus, yellow phosphorus;
scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.
ignis fatuus [Lat.]; Jack o’lantern, Friar’s lantern; will-o’-the-
wisp, firedrake^, Fata Morgana [Lat.]; Saint Elmo’s fire.
[luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.
[luminous fish] anglerfish.
[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern, lanthorn^;
dark lantern, bull’s-eye; candle, bougie [Fr.], taper, rushlight; oil
&c (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand^, moderator, duplex; torch,
flambeau, link, brand; gaselier^, chandelier, electrolier^, candelabrum,
candelabra, girandole^, sconce, luster, candlestick.
[non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent
lamp, tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch [Brit.]; arc light;
laser; [microwave radiation]; maser neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent
[parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.
firework, fizgig^; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c (signal)
V. illuminate &c (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric^, phosphorescent, fluorescent;
incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c (light) 420.
Phr. blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels
[Longfellow]; the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky [Campbell];
the planets in their station list’ning stood [Paradise Lost]; the
Scriptures of the skies [Bailey]; that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night [Twelfth Night].

424. Shade — N. shade; awning &c (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze,
veil, chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering.
of clouds.
umbrage, glade; shadow &c 421.
beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c v.; cast
a shadow &c (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail [Thomson].

425. Transparency — N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity^; lucidity, pellucidity^,
limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination^.
transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite^, water.
V. be transparent &c adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent, tralucent^,
relucent^; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal,
vitreous, transpicuous^, glassy, hyaline; hyaloid [Med.], vitreform^.

426. Opacity — N. opacity; opaqueness &c adj.. film; cloud &c 353.
V. be opaque &c adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous^; dim &c 422; turbid,
thick, muddy, opacous^, obfuscated, fuliginous^, cloud, hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous^, muggy^ &c (turbidity) 426.1.
smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

426a. Turbidity — N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
nephelometer [instrument to measure turbidity].
Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous^, hazy, misty, foggy,
vaporous, nubiferous^; cloudy (cloud) 353.
smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

427. Semitransparency — N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness^; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c (cloud) 353.
[opalescent jewel] opal.
turbidity &c 426.1.
Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid^, semidiaphanous^,
semiopacous^, semiopaque; opalescent, opaline^; pearly, milky; frosted,
V. opalesce.

428. Color — N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color.
local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective.
[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism^, chromatography^, chromatology^.
[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph,
spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.
pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain;
medium; mordant; oil paint &c (painting) 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct^, paint, wash, ingrain, grain,
illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c v.; colorific^, tingent^, tinctorial^; chromatic,
prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-dyed;
polychromatic; chromatogenous^; tingible^.
bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded^; rich, gorgeous; gay.
gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant,
mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender,

429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism — N. achromatism^; decoloration^,
discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity^; paleness &c adj.;
etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c adj.; turn
pale, pale.
deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize,
blanch, etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c (color) &c 428; colorless, achromatic, aplanatic^;
etiolate, etiolated; hueless^, pale, pallid; palefaced^, tallow-faced;
faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan, sallow, dead, dingy, ashy,
ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster; discolored &c v..
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c 430.
pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost,
pale as a corpse, white as a corpse.

430. Whiteness — N. whiteness &c adj.; argent.
albification^, etiolation; lactescence^.
snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata^, eburin^,
German silver, white metal, barium sulphate [Chem], titanium oxide,
blanc fixe [Fr.], ceruse^, pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead.
V. be white &c adj.. render white &c adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch,
etiolate, whitewash, silver.
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous^, candid, chalky;
hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent^, cretaceous,
whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c v.; high in
tone, light.
white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c n..

431. Blackness — N. blackness, &c adj.; darkness, &c (want of light)..
421; swartliness^, lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro &c
nigrification^, infuscation^.
jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven,
[derogatory terms for black-skinned people] negro, blackamoor, man
of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U.S.]; coon
[U.S.], sambo.
[Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink,
printing ink, printer’s ink, Indian ink, India ink.
V. be black &c adj.; render black &c adj.. blacken, infuscate^,
denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch^; smirch; darken &c 421.
black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon,
atramentous^, jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous^, pitchy, sooty,
swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the
deepest dye.
black as jet &c n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker’s pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c (dark) 421; nigrescent^; gray &c 432; obscure &c 421.
Adv. in mourning.

432. Gray — N. gray &c adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and salt,
chiaroscuro, grisaille [Fr.].
[Pigments] Payne’s gray; black &c 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous^; silver,
silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous^, cineritious^; grizzly,
grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-colored;

433. Brown — N. brown &c adj.. [Pigments],, bister ocher, sepia,
Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c adj.; tan, embrown^, bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous^, chestnut, nut-brown,
cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous^, chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan,
brunette, whitey brown^; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-colored;
brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki.
sun-burnt; tanned &c v..

Primitive Colors

434. Redness — N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose [Fr.], rose du Barry^; magenta,
damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high
color; warmth; gules [Heral.].
ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine^; ruddle^,
madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto^;
annatto^, realgar, minium^, red lead.
redness &c adj.; rubescence^, rubicundity, rubification^;
erubescence^, blush.
V. be red, become red &c adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
render red &c adj.; redden, rouge; rubify^, rubricate;
incarnadine.; ruddle^.
Adj. red &c n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine, sanguine;
rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed^; burnt; rubicund, rubiform^; lurid,
stammell blood red^; russet buff, murrey^, carroty^, sorrel,
lateritious^; rubineous^, rubricate, rubricose^, rufulous^.
rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
blushing &c v.; erubescent^; reddened &c v.. red as fire, red as
blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red as a lobster; warm,
hot; foxy.

Complementary Colors

435. Greenness — N. green &c adj.; blue and yellow; vert [Heral.].
emerald, verd antique [Fr.], verdigris, malachite, beryl,
aquamarine; absinthe, cr=eme de menthe [Fr.].
[Pigments] terre verte [Fr.], verditer^, verdine^, copperas.
greenness, verdure; viridity^, viridescence^; verditure^.
[disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, rokunaisho [Jap.Tr.].
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green,
olive green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
greenish; virent^, virescent^.
green (learner) 541, new, inexperienced, novice, (unskillful) 699.
green (ill, sick).
Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

436. Yellowness — N. yellow &c adj.; or.
[Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king’s-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment^, yellow ocher, Claude tint,
aureolin^; xanthein [Chem], xanthin^; zaofulvin^.
crocus, saffron, topaz; xanthite^; yolk.
jaundice; London fog^; yellowness &c adj.; icterus^; xantho-
cyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.].
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous^, citrine, fallow; fulvous^,
fulvid^; sallow, luteous^, tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic^, xanthous^;
jaundiced^, auricomous^.
gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored,
lemon yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-
colored, creamcolored; xanthocarpous^, xanthochroid^, xanthopous^.
yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow’s foot.
warm, advancing.

437. Purple — N. purple &c adj.; blue and red, bishop’s purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin^, amethyst; purpure [Heral.]; heliotrope.
lividness, lividity.
V. empurple^.
Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

438. Blueness — N. blue &c adj.; garter-blue; watchet^.
[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen [Chem]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue^; bice^, indigo; zaffer^.
lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite^.
blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent^; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

439. Orange — N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame color &c
adj.. [Pigments] ocher, Mars’orange^, cadmium.
cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal
lobelia (a flowering plant).
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous^; orange-colored, gold-colored, flame-colored,
copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot, glowing.

440. Variegation — N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness,
spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite^, mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae^, strigae^; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph’s
coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker, chequer;
bespeckle^, speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot,
bespot^; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored, party-
colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor^, tricolor, versicolor^; of
all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic.
iridescent; opaline^, opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly,
shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant^; irisated^, pavonine^.
pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous^.
mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c n.. spotted, spotty;
punctated^, powdered; speckled &c v.; freckled, flea-bitten, studded;
flecked, fleckered^; striated, barred, veined; brinded^, brindled;
tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c v.; daedal^; naevose^,
stipiform^; strigose^, striolate^.

441. Vision — N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
view, look, espial^, glance, ken [Scot.], coup d’oeil [Fr.];
glimpse, glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration^, contemplation;
conspection^, conspectuity^; regard, survey; introspection;
reconnaissance, speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage [Fr.],
autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.
point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird’s eye view; periscope.
visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye;
retina, pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle
eyes, gooseberry eyes.
short sight &c 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear
eye, sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis^.
eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus^.
evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Myth.].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken [Scot.]; get a
sight of, have a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a
glimpse of, catch a glimpse of; command a view of; witness,
contemplate, speculate; cast the eyes on, set the eyes on; be a
spectator of &c 444; look on &c (be present) 186; see sights &c
(curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c (intelligence) 498.
look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one’s eye; look at, look
on, look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan,
inspect; run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance
round, glance on, glance over turn one’s looks upon, bend one’s looks
upon; direct the eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
observe &c (attend to) 457; watch &c (care) 459; see with one’s
own eyes; watch for &c (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play
at bopeep^.
look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one’s
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over,
gloat on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look
Adj. seeing &c v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
clear-eyesighted &c n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-
eyed, Argus-eyed.
visible &c 446.
Adv. visibly &c 446; in sight of, with one’s eyes open at sight, at
first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie [Lat.].
Int. look!, &c (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one’s eyes; an eye like Mars to threaten
or command [Hamlet]; her eyes are homes of silent prayer [Tennyson];
looking before and after [Hamlet]; thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes

442. Blindness — N. blindness, cecity^, excecation^, amaurosis^,
cataract, ablepsy^, ablepsia^, prestriction^; dim-sightedness &c 443;
Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena (drop serene), noctograph^,
V. be blind &c adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes,
avert the eyes; look another way; wink &c (limited vision) 443; shut
the eyes to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
render blind &c adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put
one’s eyes out; throw dust into one’s eyes, pull the wool over one’s
eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux [Fr.]; screen from sight &c (hide)
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning^; dimsighted &c 443.
blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
blinded &c v..
Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.
Phr. O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon [Milton].

443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness [Fallacies of vision.] — N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c;
purblindness, lippitude^; myopia, presbyopia^; confusion of vision;
astigmatism; color blindness, chromato pseudo blepsis^, Daltonism;
nyctalopia^; strabismus, strabism^, squint; blearedness^, day blindness,
hemeralopia^, nystagmus; xanthocyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.]; cast in the
eye, swivel eye, goggle-eyes; obliquity of vision.
winking &c v.; nictitation; blinkard^, albino.
dizziness, swimming, scotomy^; cataract; ophthalmia.
[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c (hider) 530.
[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus [Lat.]; refraction,
distortion, illusion, false light, anamorphosis^, virtual image,
spectrum, mirage, looming, phasma^; phantasm, phantasma^, phantom;
vision; specter, apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus [Lat.] &c (luminary)
423; specter of the Brocken; magic mirror; magic lantern &c (show) 448;
mirror lens &c (instrument) 445.
V. be dimsighted &c n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a mist
before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant^,
askant askance^; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate^.
dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c n.; myopic, presbyopic^; astigmatic, moon-eyed,
mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of
one eye, monoculous^; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-
eyed; dichroic.
blind as a bat &c (blind) 442; winking &c v..

444. Spectator — N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer;
rubberneck, rubbernecker [U.S.].
spy; sentinel &c (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c (see) 441; look on &c (be present) 186; gawk,
rubber [Slang], rubberneck [U.S.].

445. Optical Instruments — N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope,
megascope^, tienoscope^.
spectacles, specs [Coll.], glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft
lenses, hard lenses; sunglasses, shades [Coll.].
periscopic lens^; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera
glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens,
concave lens, convexo-concave lens^, coated lens, multiple lens,
compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye
lens, zoom lens; optical bench.
astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector,
refracting telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path
telescope, finder telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope;
radiotelescope, phased-array telescope, Very Large Array
radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared telescope; star
spectroscope; space telescope.
[telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.
refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.
phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting
microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope;
scanning electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron
[microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel,
platform, focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting
chamber; illuminator, light source, polarizer, [component parts of
telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.
light pipe, fiber optics mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-
glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass, rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way
mirror, magnifying mirror.
[room with distorting mirrors] fun house.
prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate,
quarter-wave plate.
camera lucida [Lat.], camera obscura [Lat.]; magic lantern &c
(show) 448; stereopticon; chromatrope^, thaumatrope^; stereoscope,
pseudoscope^, polyscope^, kaleidoscope.
photometer, eriometer^, actinometer^, lucimeter^, radiometer; ligth
detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array, photocell.
X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.
spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible
spectrometer, Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer, recording spectrometer; densitometer, scanning
densitometer, two-dimensional densitometer.
abdominoscope^, gastroscope [Med.], helioscope^, polariscope^,
polemoscope^, spectroscope.
abdominoscopy^; gastroscopy [Med.]; microscopy, microscopist.

446. Visibility — N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c adj.; conspicuity^, conspicuousness; appearance &c 448;
bassetting^; exposure; manifestation &c 525; ocular proof, ocular
evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c (vision) 441;
V. be become visible &c adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out,
crop out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer,
loom; glare; burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight;
heave in sight; come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth,
come forward; see the light of day; break through the clouds; make its
appearance, show its face, appear to one’s eyes, come upon the stage,
float before the eyes, speak for itself &c (manifest) 525; attract the
attention &c 457; reappear; live in a glass house.
expose to view &c 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in view,
in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en vidence; unclouded,
unobscured^, in the foreground.
obvious &c (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical^;
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
periscopic^, panoramic.
before one’s eyes, under one’s eyes; before one, +a vue d’oeil
[Fr.], in one’s eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus [Lat.].
Adv. visibly &c adj.; in sight of; before one’s eyes &c adj.; veluti in
speculum [Lat.].

447. Invisibility — N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c adj.; mystery, delitescence^.
concealment &c 528; latency &c 526.
V. be invisible &c adj.; be hidden &c (hide) 528; lurk &c (lie hidden)
526; escape notice.
render invisible &c adj.; conceal &c 528; put out of sight.
not see &c (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible^, indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de vue
[Fr.]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous^; unseen &c (see) &c 441; covert &c
(latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
dim &c (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused;
indistinct, indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-
defined, ill-marked; blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c (opaque)
426; delitescent^.
hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
Phr. full many a flower is born to blush unseen [Gray].

448. Appearance — N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle, show,
premonstration^, scene, species, view, coup d’oeil [Fr.]; lookout,
outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird’s-eye view, scenery,
landscape, picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en sc ne [Fr.];
rising of the curtain.
phantasm, phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443.
pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises [Sp.]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views;
biograph^, cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama,
cosmorama^, georama^; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre [Fr.]; pageantry
&c (ostentation) 882; insignia &c (indication) 550.
aspect, angle, phase, phasis^, seeming; shape &c (form) 240; guise,
look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port,
demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point
of view, light.
lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz., cast of countenance, profile,
tournure^, cut of one s jib, metoposcopy^; outside &c 220.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c 446; seem, look, show; present
the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance
of, take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the
appearance, present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the
semblance of, have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the
semblance of, take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume
the semblance of; look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view;
show &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat.]; at the
first blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps [Lat.].

449. Disappearance — N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
departure &c 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go, avaunt^,
evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c adj.; leave no trace, leave ‘not a rack
behind’ [Tempest]; go off the stage &c (depart) 293; suffer an eclipse,
undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass out of
lose sight of.
efface &c 552.
Adj. disappearing &c v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight, lost
to view; gone.
Int. vanish!, disappear!, avaunt!^, get lost!, get out of here &c
(ejection) 297.



450. Intellect — N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason, thinking
principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience,
intelligence, intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct,
conception, judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius;
brains, cognitive powers, intellectual powers; wit &c 498; ability &c
(skill) 698; wisdom &c 498; Vernunft [G.], Verstand [G.].
soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis [Lat.], divina particula aurae [Lat.], heart’s core; the
Absolute, psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium^, sensory;
head, headpiece; pate, noddle^, noggin, skull, scull, pericranium
[Med.], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan^, sconce, upper story.
[in computers] [Comp.] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic
and logical unit, ALU.
[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology;
mental philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind;
pneumatology^, phrenology; craniology [Med.], cranioscopy [Med.].
ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality
&c 317; universal concept, universal conception.
metaphysician, psychologist &c
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c (think) 451; fancy &c
(imagine) 515.
Adj. intellectual [Relating to intellect], mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic^, spiritual; ghostly; psychical^,
psychological; cerebral; animastic^; brainy; hyperphysical^,
superphysical^; subconscious, subliminal.
immaterial &c 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; frons est animi janua [Lat.] [Cicero]; locos
y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat.] [Ovid];
my mind is my kingdom [Campbell]; stern men with empires in their
brains [Lowell]; the mind, the music breathing from her face [Byron];
thou living ray of intellectual Fire [Falconer].

450a. Absence or want of Intellect — N. absence of intellect, want of
intellect &c 450; imbecility &c 499.
brutality, brute force.
instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic [Sarc.], idiotic [Sarc.], brainless [Sarc.].
Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov’s dog; vegetatively.
V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

451. Thought — N. thought; exercitation of the intellect^, exercise of
the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration,
meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering;
head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study,
application &c (attention) 457.
abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study
&c (inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of
the mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought,
train of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession
of ideas, flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c (memory) 505; excogitation^; examination &c (inquiry)
461; invention &c (imagination) 515.
thoughtfulness &c adj..
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate^, consider, deliberate; bestow
thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate,
meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over;
animadvert, study; bend the mind, apply the mind &c (attend) 457;
digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy
&c (imagine) 515; trow^.
take into consideration; take counsel &c (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one’s thoughts; revolve in the
mind, turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon,
sleep upon; take counsel of one’s pillow, advise with one’s pillow.
rack one’s brains, ransack one’s brains, crack one’s brains, beat
one’s brains, cudgel one’s brains; set one’s brain to work, set one’s
wits to work.
harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an
idea &c 453; take into one’s head; bear in mind; reconsider.
occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one’s head, get
into one’s head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run
in one s head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash
on the mind, flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on
the mind, be uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one’s
make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful^, wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
lost in thought &c (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c (intent) 457.
in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; divinely, bent to meditation
[Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin [Fr.]; fresh-
pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought [O.
Meredith]; go speed the stars of Thought [Emerson]; in maiden
meditation fancy-free [M.N.D.]; so sweet is zealous contemplation
[Richard III]; the power of thought is the magic of the Mind [Byron];
those that think must govern those that toil [Goldsmith]; thought is
parent of the deed [Carlyle]; thoughts in attitudes imperious
[Longfellow]; thoughts that breathe and words that burn [Gray]; vivere
est cogitare [Lat.] [Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [G.].

452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy — N. incogitancy^,
vacancy, inunderstanding^; fatuity &c 499; thoughtlessness &c
(inattention) 458; vacuity.
couch potato, vegetable.
V. not think &c 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss from
the thoughts &c 451.
indulge in reverie &c (be inattentive) 458.
put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the
mind, veg out.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal^, unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c 499; narrow-minded &c 481.
unthought of, undreamt ‘of, unconsidered; off one’s mind;
incogitable^, not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d’esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani [Lat.].

453. [Object of thought.] Idea — N. idea, notion, conception, thought,
apprehension, impression, perception, image, eidolon [Gr.], sentiment,
reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea; archetype,
formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception; image in
the mind, regulative principle.
view &c (opinion) 484; theory &c 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c
(imagination) 515.
point of view &c (aspect) 448; field of view.

454. [Subject of thought] Topic — N. subject of thought, material for
thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
subject, subject matter; matter, theme, noemata [Gr.], topic, what
it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem;
field of inquiry; moot point, problem &c (question) 461.
V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis^; relative to &c 9.


455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity — N. interest, thirst for
knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind;
omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.
[person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc
[Lat.], newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c (news) 532;
rubberneck; intellectual; seeker [inquirer after religious knowledge],
seeker after truth.
V. be curious &c adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck [U.S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient;
inquisitorial, inquisitory^; curious as a cat; agape &c (expectant) 507.
Phr. what’s the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity
killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back.
curiouser and curiouser [Alice in Wonderland].

456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity — N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c adj.; insouciance &c 866; indifference, lack of
interest, disinterest.
boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c 639; foreknowledge
(foresight) 510;
V. be incurious &c adj.; have no curiosity &c 455; take no interest in
&c 823; mind one’s own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c 823;
uninterested, detached, aloof.

457. Attention — N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c adj.;
intentness, intentiveness^; alertness; thought &c 451; advertence,
advertency^; observance, observation; consideration, reflection,
perpension^; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c v.;
circumspection, diligence &c (care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection,
introspection; revision, revisal.
active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent
attention, exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention,
intense attention, deep attention, profound attention, abstract
attention, labored attention, deliberate attention, active thought,
diligent thought, exclusive thought, minute thought, close thought,
intense thought, deep thought, profound thought, abstract thought,
labored thought, deliberate thought, active study, diligent study,
exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense study, deep study,
profound study, abstract study, labored study, deliberate study.
minuteness, attention to detail.
absorption of mind &c (abstraction) 458.
indication, calling attention to &c v..
V. be attentive &c adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay
attention to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear
to; trouble one’s head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy
oneself with; contemplate &c (think of) 451; look at, look to, look
after, look into, look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind
to, apply the mind to, direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the
eye to, bend the eye to, apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the
eye to, turn the attention to, bend the attention to, apply the
attention to, direct the attention to, give the attention to; have an
eye to, have in one’s eye; bear in mind; take into account, take into
consideration; keep in sight, keep in view; have regard to, heed, mind,
take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make note of, take note of;
examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the
eyes over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip
into, perstringe^; skim &c (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one’s mind to, bend one’s mind to; overhaul, revise,
pore over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the
eye on, rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix
the mind on, devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one’s
revert to; watch &c (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open;
come to the point.
meet with attention; fall under one’s notice, fall under one’s
observation; be under consideration &c (topic) 454.
catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the
attention, awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the
attention, solicit the attention, attract the attention, claim the
attention excite the attention, engage the attention, occupy the
attention, strike the attention, arrest the attention, fix the
attention, engross the attention, absorb the attention, rivet the
attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the mind, invite the
mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind excite the
mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest the
mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the
thoughts excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts,
strike the thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the
thoughts, absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the
mind, be uppermost in the mind.
bring under one’s notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate^, indicate; direct attention
to, call attention to; show; put a mark upon &c (sign) 550; call
soldiers to ‘attention’; bring forward &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed,
riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV, the window, a book);
breathless; preoccupied &c (inattentive) 458; watchful &c (careful)
459; breathless, undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c
(expectant) 507.
[compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing,
Int. see!, look, look here, look you, look to it!, mark!, lo!, behold!,
soho!^, hark, hark ye!, mind!, halloo!, observe!, lo and behold!,
attention!, nota bene [Lat.], N.B., note well; I’d have you to know;
notice!, O yes!, Oyez!, dekko!^, ecco!^, yoho!,
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est [Lat.], a word to the wise is sufficient; finem respice [Lat.].
Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung [G.]; vnimanie [Rus.];
chui [Jap.].

458. Inattention — N. inattention, inconsideration; inconsiderateness
&c adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency, nonobservance,
supineness &c (inactivity) 683; etourderie [Fr.], want of thought;
heedlessness &c (neglect) 460; insouciance &c (indifference) 866.
abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c (neglect)
460; not observe &c 457; think little of.
close one’s eyes to, shut one’s eyes to; pay no attention to;
dismiss from one’s thoughts, discard from one’s thoughts, discharge
from one’s thoughts, dismiss from one’s mind, discard from one’s mind,
discharge from one’s mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set
aside, turn aside, put aside; turn away from, turn one’s attention
from, turn a deaf ear to, turn one’s back upon.
abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at
the other; forget &c (have no remembrance) 506.
call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one’s
head; disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder,
moider^, fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking,
unheeding, undiscerning^; inadvertent; mindless, regardless,
respectless^, listless &c (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird-witted;
hand over head; cursory, percursory^; giddy-brained, scatter-brained,
hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting^, ecervele [Fr.]; offhand;
dizzy, muzzy^, brainsick^; giddy, giddy as a goose; wild, harum-scarum,
rantipole^, highflying; heedless, careless &c (neglectful) 460.
inconsiderate, thoughtless.
absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other
things, musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c (attentive)
457; daydreaming, in a reverie &c n.; off one’s guard &c (inexpectant)
508 [Obs.]; napping; dreamy; caught napping.
disconcerted, distracted, put out &c v..
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c adj.^; per
incuriam [Lat.], sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!,
Phr. the attention wanders; one’s wits gone a woolgathering, one’s wits
gone a bird’s nesting; it never entered into one’s head; the mind
running on other things; one’s thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a
bear it would have bitten you.

459. Care [Vigilance.] — N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness &c
adj.; scruple &c (conscientiousness) 939.
watchfulness &c adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus^,
watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre [Fr.].
alertness &c (activity) 682; attention &c 457; prudence &c,
circumspection &c (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c 510;
precaution &c (preparation) 673; tidiness &c (order) 58, (cleanliness)
652; accuracy &c (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c adj.; reck^; take care &c (be cautious) 864; pay
attention to &c 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see
after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize^, play
gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch,
watch; keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one’s business.
look sharp, look about one; look with one’s own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one’s wits about one, have all
one’s eyes about one; watch for &c (expect) 507; keep one’s eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one’s eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c v.; particular; prudent
&c (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c (deliberative) 451;
provident &c (prepared) 673; alert &c (active) 682; sure-footed.
guarded, on one’s guard; on the qui vivre [Fr.], on the alert, on
watch, on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful,
wistful; Argus-eyed; wide awake &c (intelligent) 498; on the watch for
(expectant) 507.
tidy &c (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c (safe) 664 [Lat.].
Adv. carefully &c adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Lat.], who will watch the
watchers?; care will kill a cat [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas
[Sp.]; O polished perturbation! Golden care! [Henry IV]; the incessant
care and labor of his mind [Henry IV].

460. Neglect — N. neglect; carelessness &c adj.; trifling &c v.;
negligence; omission, oversight, laches [Law], default; supineness &c
(inactivity) 683; inattention &c 458; nonchalance &c (insensibility)
823; imprudence, recklessness &c 863; slovenliness &c (disorder) 59,
(dirt) 653; improvidence &c 674; noncompletion &c 730; inexactness &c
(error) 495.
paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis (in rhetoric).
trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c adj.; take no care of &c (take care of) &c 459;
neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cst aside, put aside;
keep out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no
account of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller [Fr.].
scamp; trifle, fribble^; do by halves; cut; slight &c (despise)
930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer
[Fr.]; take a cursory view of &c 457.
slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit^, miss, skip,
jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
table [Parl.]; ignore, shut one’s eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf
ear to; leave out of one’s calculation; not attend to &c 457, not mind;
not trouble oneself about, not trouble one’s head about, not trouble
oneself with; forget &c 506; be caught napping &c (not expect) 508;
leave a loose thread; let the grass grow under one’s feet.
render neglectful &c adj.; put off one’s guard, throw off one’s
guard; distract, divert.
Adj. neglecting &c v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c 575.
inconsiderate; uncircumspect^, incircumspect^; off one’s guard;
unwary, unwatchful^, unguarded; offhand.
supine &c (inactive) 683; inattentive &c 458; insouciant &c
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c 863; slovenly &c (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c (erroneous) 495; improvident &c 674.
neglected &c v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted^, unmarked, unattended to, unthought of,
unregarded^, unremarked, unmissed^; shunted, shelved.
unexamined, unstudied, unsearched^, unscanned^, unweighed^,
unsifted, unexplored.
abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam [Lat.].
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.
Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] — N. inquiry; request &c
765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c 622.
examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation^;
perquisition^, perscrutation^, pervestigation^; inquest, inquisition;
exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method^.
strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive
inquiry; narrow search, strict search; study &c (consideration) 451.
scire facias [Lat.], ad referendum; trial.
questioning &c v.; interrogation, interrogatory; interpellation;
challenge, examination, cross-examination, catechism; feeler, Socratic
method, zetetic philosophy^; leading question; discussion &c (reasoning)
reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c v.; espionage,
espionnage [Fr.]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern
of Diogenes.
question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism^;
subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in
dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone
of contention &c (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open
question; enigma &c (secret) 533; knotty point &c (difficulty) 704;
quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.
[person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor,
inspector, querist^, examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer
scrutinizer^; analyst; quidnunc &c (curiosity) 455 [Lat.].
V. make inquiry &c n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.
look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter,
explore, sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go
over, look through, go through; spy, overhaul.
[object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.
scratch the head, slap the forehead.
look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner,
pry into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down,
hunt out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.
seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c 662; beat up one’s
quarters; fish for; feel for &c (experiment) 463.
investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c n.; look at, look into;
preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.
[inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip
into, dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound,
fathom; probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze,
anatomize, dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its
phases, try in all its phases; thresh out.
bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination;
put to the proof &c (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take
into consideration &c (think over) 451; take counsel &c 695.
question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the
question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question,
raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth
the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go
into a question.
[human object], question, put to the question, interrogate, pump;
subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question,
cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the
inquisition; dodge^.
require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel
the pulse.
get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one’s
ear to the ground.
be in question &c adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c v.; inquisitive &c (curious) 455; requisitive^,
requisitory^; catechetical^, inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in
quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic^; all searching.
undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in
issue, in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration,
under investigation &c n.; sub judice [Lat.], moot, proposed; doubtful
&c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. quaere? [Lat.], what?, why?, wherefore?, whence?, whither?,
where?, how comes it?, how happens it?, how is it?, what is the
reason?, what’s the matter?, nicht wahr? [G.], what’s in the wind?,
what on earth?, when?, who?.

462. Answer — N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder^, rebutter, surrebutter^, retort, repartee;
rescript, rescription^; antiphon^, antiphony; acknowledgment; password;
echo; counter statement.
discovery &c 480.1; solution &c (explanation) 522; rationale &c
(cause) 153; clue &c (indication) 550.
Oedipus; oracle &c 513; return &c (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
explain &c (interpret) 522; solve &c (unriddle) 522; discover &c
480.1; fathom, hunt out &c (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest,
Adj. answering &c v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!,

463. Experiment — N. experiment; essay &c (attempt) 675; analysis &c
(investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, t=atonnement.
verification, probation, experimentum crucis [Lat.], proof,
(demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test,
acid test, litmus test.
crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix^; assay, ordeal; ring;
litmus paper, curcuma paper^, turmeric paper; test tube; analytical
instruments &c 633.
empiricism, rule of thumb.
feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot
engine; scout; straw to show the wind.
speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
analyzer, analyst, assayist^; adventurer; experimenter,
experimentist^, experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.
subject, experimentee^, guinea pig, experimental animal.
[experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind
experiment, double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.
poll, survey, opinion poll.
epidemiological survey [Med.], retrospective analysis,
retrospective survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis;
statistical analysis.
literature search, library research.
tryout, audition.
[results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c 466;
evidence &c 467.
[reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.
V. experiment; essay &c (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one’s strength; road-test, test drive, take for a
spin; test fly.
grope; feel one’s way, grope for one’s way; fumble, t=atonner,
aller =a t=atons [Fr.], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a
trial balloon, send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the
lay of the land, test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse,
see, check, check out [Coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the
barometer; feel the pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for;
angle, trawl, cast one’s net, beat the bushes.
try one’s fortune &c (adventure) 675; explore &c (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
probative, probatory^, probationary, provisional; analytic,
docimastic^; tentative; unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.
Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on
one’s trial, on approval.
Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; Run it up the
flagpole and see who salutes

464. Comparison — N. comparison, collation, contrast; identification;
comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c
(metaphor) 521.
matching, pattern-matching.
[quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
[results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination 465.1
[Obs.]; identification 465.2.
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one
another; contrast, balance.
identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c 521.
compared with &c v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c (relation) 9; as compared with &c v..
Phr. comparisons are odious; comparisons are odorous [Much Ado about

464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] — N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c 465.1.
Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c 15.
Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination — N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism^; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c
466; nicety, refinement; taste &c 850; critique, judgment; tact;
discernment &c (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
dope [Slang], past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize^; recognize, match, identify;
separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat,
winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split
hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.
estimate &c (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know ‘a hawk from a handsaw’ [Hamlet].
take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to,
allow due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c v.; dioristic^, discriminative, distinctive;
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; la critique est
aisee et l’art est difficile [Fr.]; miles apart; a distinction without
a difference.

465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination — N.
indiscrimination^, indistinguishability; indistinctness, indistinction^;
uncertainty &c (doubt) 475; incomparability &c 464.1.
V. not discriminate &c 465; overlook a distinction &c (neglect) 460,
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished^, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable^; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest [Lat.].

465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification — N. identification,
recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation;
dereplication; classification; memory &c 505; interpretation &c 522;
cognizance (knowledge) 490.
V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember &c
(memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place,
put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

466. Measurement — N. measurement, admeasurement^, mensuration, survey,
valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation; dead
reckoning, reckoning &c (numeration) 85; gauging &c v.; horse power.
metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass,
calipers; gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo^.
flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c 550.
scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius^; vernier &c
(minuteness) 193.
[instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer,
interferometer, odometer, ombrometer^, pantometer^, pluviometer^,
pneumatometer^, pneumometer^, radiometer, refractometer, respirometer,
rheometer, spirometer^, telemeter, udometer^, vacuometer^, variometer^,
viameter^, thermometer, thermistor (heat) &c 382, barometer (air) &c
338, anemometer (wind) 349, dynamometer, goniometer, (angle) 244 meter;
landmark &c (limit) 233; balance, scale &c (weight) 319; marigraph^,
pneumatograph^, stethograph^; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter (volts),
ammeter (amps); spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass
spectrophotometer (molecular mass); geiger counter, scintillation
counter (radioactivity); pycnometer (liquid density); graduated
cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun (velocity); radar
(distance); side-looking radar, (shape, topography); sonar (depth in
water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch,
chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color
measurability, computability, determinability^.
coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude
and longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
geometry, stereometry^, hypsometry^; metage^; surveying, land
surveying; geodesy, geodetics^, geodesia^; orthometry^, altimetry^;
cadastre [Fr.].
astrolabe, armillary sphere^.
land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate,
appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate;
span, pace step; apply the compass &c n.; gauge, plumb, probe,
sound, fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
take an average &c 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c v.; metric, metrical; measurable, perceptible,
noticeable, detectable, appreciable, ponderable, determinable,
fathomable; geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic,

Evidence for, against, and in mitigation

467. Evidence [On one side.] — N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita [Lat.], grounds.
indication &c 550; criterion &c (test) 463.
testimony, testification^, expert testimony; attestation;
deposition &c (affirmation) 535; examination.
admission &c (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential,
diploma, voucher, certificate, doquet^, docket; testamur^; record &c
551; document; pi ce justificative^; deed, warranty &c (security) 771;
signature, seal &c (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence,
objective evidence.
witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness,
material witness, state’s evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror^.
oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence [Lat.],
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof
&c (demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support;
ratification &c (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation^, wager of
law, comprobation^.
citation, reference; legal research, literature search
(experiment) 463.
V. be evidence &c n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself
&c (manifest) 525.
rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
bear witness &c n.; give evidence &c n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign^, set one’s hand and seal, sign and
seal, deliver as one’s act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c
(assent) 488.
[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce
witnesses, confront witnesses.
place into evidence, mark into evidence.
[obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake
up evidence; experiment &c 463.
have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate,
substantiate, verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home
to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c 478; grounded
on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more, still
less; raison de plus [Fr.]; in corroboration &c n.. of; valeat quantum
[Lat.]; under seal, under one’s hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto [Lat.]; mise en evidence [Fr.].

468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter Evidence
— N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on the
other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing
evidence; disproof, refutation &c 479; negation &c 536.
plea &c 617; vindication &c 937; counter protest; ‘tu quoque’
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of
the shield.
V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c (refute) 479;
subvert &c (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c
(deny) 536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn
the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a
audire alteram partem [Lat.].
Adj. countervailing &c v.; contradictory.
unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence;
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

469. Qualification — N. qualification, limitation, modification,
allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation,
provision, specification, sine qua non [Lat.]; catch, string, strings
attached; exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause;
discount &c 813; restriction; fine print.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into
account; modulate.
moderate, temper, season, leaven.
take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c (unconformable) 83.
hypothetical &c (supposed) 514; contingent &c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition
of &c (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although,
though, for all that, after all, at all events.
approximately &c 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a
degree, in a sense, so to speak.
with grains of allowance, cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of
salt; exceptis excipiendis [Lat.]; wind and weather permitting; if
possible &c 470.
subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c n..
Phr. if the good lord is willing and the creeks don’t rise; catch- 22.
Degrees of Evidence

470. Possibility — N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what is
possible &c adj.; compatibility &c (agreement) 23.
practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c adj.. contingency,
chance &c 156.
V. be possible &c adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
render possible &c adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c 23; likely.
practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach,
within measurable distance; accessible, superable^, surmountable;
attainable, obtainable; contingent &c (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure; maybe,
may be, haply, mayhap.
if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo volente
[Lat.], D.V.; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent [Lat.]; the glories of
the Possible are ours [B.
Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory possible, but in practise

471. Impossibility — N. impossibility &c adj.; what cannot, what can
never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c 859.
V. be impossible &c adj.; have no chance whatever.
attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor
white; skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear, make bricks
without straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build
castles in the air, prendre la lune avec les dents [Fr.], extract
sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a
sieve, catch a weasel asleep, rompre l’anguille au genou [Fr.], be in
two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c 477; incredible &c 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of
possibility; from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c
(improbable) 473; prodigious &c (wonderful) 870; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; unthinkable.
impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable^, insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of
reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond
control; desperate &c (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable^, impassable, impervious, innavigable^, inextricable; self-
out of one’s power, beyond one’s power, beyond one’s depth, beyond
one’s reach, beyond one’s grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam [Lat.].
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus [Lat.]; non nostrum tantas
componere lites [Lat.] [Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack,
chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin [Fr.]; il a le mer +a

472. Probability — N. probability, likelihood; credibleness^;
likeliness &c adj.; vraisemblance [Fr.], verisimilitude, plausibility;
color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive evidence,
circumstantial evidence; credibility.
reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c 156.
V. be probable &c adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c (evidence) 467; bid fair &c (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c 507; count upon
&c (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato [It],
well-founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable,
presumptive, apparent.
Adv. probably &c adj.; belike^; in all probability, in all likelihood;
very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor, ten to
one &c; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable
expectation; prim=a facie [Lat.]; to all appearance &c (to the eye)
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

473. Improbability — N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance,
poor chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long
odds; incredibility &c 485.
V. be improbable &c adj.; have a small chance &c n..
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation; wild
[Coll.], far out [Coll.], out of sight [Coll.], outtasight [Coll.],
heavy [Coll.].
rare &c (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; incredible &c 485; more than doubtful; strange, bizarre
(uncomformable) 83.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas [Lat.]; pedir
peras pal olmo [Lat.].

474. Certainty — N. certainty; necessity &c 601; certitude, surety,
assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c adj.;
infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res
judicata [Lat.], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist,
dogmatizer; doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist^, Sir Oracle; ipse dixit
fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli [Fr.].
V. be certain &c adj.; stand to reason.
render certain &c adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, make assurance double sure [Macbeth];
know &c (believe) 484.
dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c v.; solid, well-founded.
unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless^; ineluctable.
unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c (proven)
478; conclusive, without power of appeal.
indubious^; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or
shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear
as day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted,
uncontested, unquestioned, undisputed; questionless^, doubtless.
authoritative, authentic, official.
sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as
the sun at noonday.
Adv. certainly &c adj.; for certain, certes [Lat.], sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto [Lat.], sure enough, to be
sure, of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in
truth &c (truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute
que coute [Fr.], coute qu’il coute [Fr.]; whatever may happen, if the
worst come to the worst; come what may, happen what may, come what
will; sink or swim; rain or shine.
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.]; there is no question, no question, not a
shadow of doubt, there is not a shadow of doubt; the die is cast &c
(necessity) 601; facts are stubborn things [Smollett].

475. Uncertainty — N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness &c
adj.; dubiety, dubitation^, dubitancy^, dubitousness^.
hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c (fear) 860; vacillation &c 605; diaporesis^,
vagueness &c adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c (darkness) 421;
ambiguity &c (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency,
double contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c
(question) 461; onus probandi [Lat.]; blind bargain, pig in a poke,
leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a
bottle of hay; roving commission.
precariousness &c adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c adj.; wonder whether.
lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one’s way.
not know what to make of &c (unintelligibility) 519, not know
which way to turn, not know whether one stands on one s head or one’s
heels; float in a sea of doubt, hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose
one’s head; muddle one’s brains.
render uncertain &c adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex,
embarrass; confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits,
throw off the scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces [Lat.]; keep in
doubt &c (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c (aimless) 621; changeable &c 149.
doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined;
in suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c
(inquiry) 461.
vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
perplexing &c v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal,
problematical, hypothetical; experimental &c 463.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstances; occasional; provisional.
unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant, &c 491; afraid to say; out of one’s reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one’s wit’s end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c v.; lost, abroad, d_esorient_e; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite [Lat.]; sub spe rati [Lat.].
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.].


476. Reasoning, — N. {ant.
477} reasoning ratiocination rationalism; dialectics, induction,
discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c 461.
argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling;
contention &c 720; logomachy^; disputation, disceptation^; paper war.
art of reasoning, logic.
process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.
argument; case, plaidoyer^, opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c
(judgment) 480.
prosyllogism^, syllogism; enthymeme^, sorites^, dilemma,
perilepsis^, a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a
dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument;
empirema^, epagoge^.
[person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant;
controversialist, controvertist^; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic,
casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic^.
logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound
reasoning, valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning,
forcible reasoning, persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning^,
consectary reasoning^, conclusive &c 478; subtle reasoning; force of
argument, strong point, strong argument, persuasive argument.
arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle^, argufy^, bandy
words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an
argument; controvert &c (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize
upon; spiritualize; consider &c (examine) 461.
open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a
contend, take one’s stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c
follow from &c (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory^, discursive; disputatious;
Aristotelian^, eristic^, eristical^.
debatable, controvertible.
logical; relevant &c 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith^, then thence
so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso [Lat.], considering, in consideration
of; therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a
in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt
[Fr.], on the whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat.]; per troppo dibatter la
verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

477. Intuition. & Sophistry [The absence of reasoning.] [False or
vicious reasoning; show of reason.] — N. intuition, instinct,
association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of
thumb; superstition; astrology^; faith (supposition) 514.
sophistry, paralogy^, perversion, casuistry, jesuitry,
equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet^, quiddity;
mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c adj.; nonsense &c 497;
word sense, tongue sense.
false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio
principii [Lat.], ignoratio elenchi [Lat.]; post hoc ergo propter hoc
[Lat.]; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius [Lat.].
misjudgment &c 481; false teaching &c 538.
sophism, solecism, paralogism^; quibble, quirk, elenchus^, elench^,
fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet^; inconsistency,
antilogy^; a delusion, a mockery, and a snare [Denman]; claptrap, cant,
mere words; lame and impotent conclusion [Othello].
meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument;
weak point, bad case.
overrefinement^; hairsplitting &c v..
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard
a guess, talk at random.
reason ill, falsely &c adj.; misjudge &c 481; paralogize^.
take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.
pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c 538 [Obs.]; mislead &c (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilize^, split hairs; misrepresent &c (lie) 544.
beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume
the conclusion.
cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose,
play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black
is white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a
travers [Fr.], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions
(misjudgment) 481.
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason, anterior
to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous^,
absonant^; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious,
fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur [Lat.], it does not
deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum [Lat.], evasive; irrelevant &c 10.
weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.
irrational; nonsensical &c (absurd) 497.
foolish &c (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling;
finespun^, overrefined^.
at the end of one’s tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c adj.; by intuition; illogically &c adj..
Phr. non constat [Lat.]; that goes for nothing.

478. Demonstration — N. {ant.
479} demonstration, proof, rigorous proof; conclusiveness &c adj.;
apodeixis^, apodixis^, probation, comprobation^.
logic of facts &c (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c (test)
463 [Lat.]; argument &c 476; rigorous establishment, absolute
conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest &c
(be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c
467, settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at
make out, make out a case; prove one’s point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c (judge) 480.
follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
convince, persuade (belief) 484.
Adj. demonstrating &c v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic^, apodeictic^, apodeictical^;
irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
categorical, decisive, crucial.
demonstrated &c v.; proven; unconfuted^, unanswered, unrefuted^;
evident &c 474.
deducible, consequential, consectary^, inferential, following.
[demonstrated to one’s satisfaction] convincing, cogent,
persuasive (believable) 484.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
Phr. probatum est [Lat.]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum [Lat.], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat

479. Confutation — N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution^, invalidation;
exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock
down argument, tu quoque argument [Lat.]; sockdolager [U.S.],
correction &c 572.1; dissuasion &c 616.
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut,
confound, disconfirm, redargue^, expose, show the fallacy of, defeat;
demolish, break &c (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the
winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence;
clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown^, stop the
mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one’s feet.
be confuted &c; fail; expose one’s weak point, show one’s weak
counter evidence &c 468.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
confutable^, defeasible.
contravene (counter evidence) 468.
condemned on one’s own showing, condemned out of one’s own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio [Lat.], it does
not hold water, suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo [Terence]; his argument was
demolished by new evidence.


480. Judgment [Conclusion.] — N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism [Med.]; illation; corollary, porism^;
estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication^; dijudication^,
adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement^, arbitration; assessment,
ponderation^; valorization.
award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence,
decree; findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata [Lat.].
plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c (choice) 609; opinion &c
(belief) 484; good judgment &c (wisdom) 498.
judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.
censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c 524;
inspector, inspecting officer.
twenty-twenty hindsight [judgment after the fact]; armchair
general, monday morning quarterback.
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one’s mind.
deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a
deduction, weet^, ween^.
form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess,
rate, rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c (believe)
484; review; size up [Slang].
settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce,
rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give
judgment, deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award,
report; bring in a verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest;
confirm &c (assent) 488.
comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c (examine) 457;
investigate &c (inquire) 461.
hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c v.; judicious &c (wise) 498; determinate, conclusive.
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. a Daniel come to judgment [Merchant of Venice]; and stand a
critic, hated yet caress’d [Byron]; it is much easier to be critical
than to be correct [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l’art est
difficile [Fr.]; nothing if not critical [Othello]; O most lame and
impotent conclusion [Othello].

480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery — N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment^, disclosure, find, revelation.
trover [Law] &c (recovery) 775.
V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c 539; fix upon; pick up;
find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret
out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to
light; dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.
solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack
open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key
to the riddle; interpret &c 522; disclose &c 529.
trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one’s finger, lay one’s hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c 494; put the
saddle on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.
be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff,
catch a whiff of, smell a rat.
open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true
colors, see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop
upon; come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.
recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka!, aha!^, I’ve got it!,

481. Misjudgment — N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c (error) 495; hasty
[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication^, prejudice;
foregone conclusion; prenotion^, prevention, preconception,
predilection, prepossession, preapprehension^, presumption, assumption,
presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; id_ee fixe; mentis
gratissimus error [Lat.]; fool’s paradise.
[causes of misjudgment. 2] esprit de corps, party spirit,
partisanship, clannishness, prestige.
[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad,
quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
[causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind,
partial views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-
sided ideas, partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial
ideas, one-sided conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions,
confined conceptions, superficial conceptions, one-sided notions,
partial notions, narrow notions, confined notions, superficial notions;
narrow mind; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum [Lat.];
pedantry; hypercriticism.
doctrinaire &c (positive) 474.
[causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c 482; underestimation
&c 483.
[causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c 491.
erroneous assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions,
incorrect assumptions (error) 495.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink^, misconjecture^, misconceive &c
(error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon,
overestimate &c 482; underestimate &c 483.
prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate^; dogmatize;
have a bias &c n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.],
run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion,
leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to
conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced
eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one’s nose;
dare pondus fumo [Lat.]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c (blunder) 699.
give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice,
Adj. misjudging &c v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
narrow-minded, narrow-souled^; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal,
intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete [Fr.], positive,
dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative^; opinioned, opinionate,
opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion,
opini=atre; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy,
impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c 499; credulous &c 486; warped.
misjudged &c v..
Adv. ex parte [Lat.].
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful
thinking; unshakable conviction; my mind is made up – don’t bother me
with the facts.

482. Overestimation — N. overestimation &c v.; exaggeration &c 549;
vanity &c 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist.
much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a
teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine talking.
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh, overreckon^,
overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach too much
importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at straws; strain,
magnify; exaggerate &c 549; set too high a value upon; think much of,
make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon^;
extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of,
make the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
have too high an opinion of oneself &c (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c v.; oversensitive &c (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes [Lat.].

483. Underestimation — N. underestimation; depreciation &c
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c v.; modesty &c
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon^; depreciate;
disparage &c (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize;
ridicule &c 856; slight &c (despise) 930; neglect &c 460; slur over.
make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account
of; belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at
naught; shake off as dewdrops from the lion’s mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c v.; unvalued, unprized^.

484. Belief — N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
persuasion, conviction, convincement^, plerophory^, self-
conviction; certainty &c 474; opinion, mind, view; conception,
thinking; impression &c (idea) 453; surmise &c 514; conclusion &c
(judgment) 480.
tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c
(assent) 488.
firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-
rooted belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief,
inveterate belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief,
impartial belief, well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion,
settled opinion, fixed rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion,
unshaken opinion, steadfast opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion,
sober opinion, dispassionate opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded
opinion &c; uberrima fides [Lat.].
system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda^,
creed; thirty-nine articles &c (orthodoxy) 983.1; catechism; assent &c
488; propaganda &c (teaching) 537.
credibility &c (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.
count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one’s faith upon,
reckon upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one’s
account for; make sure of.
make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on
credit; take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach
some weight to.
know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be,
rest assured &c adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy
oneself; make up one’s mind.
give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one’s trust in;
place in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one’s word for, at
one’s word; place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.
think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive, trow^,
ween^, fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess, entertain a
belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get hold of
a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have an
opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an
opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion,
hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an
opinion &c n.. view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as,
regard as, esteem as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as;
surmise &c 514.
get it into one’s head, take it into one’s head; come round to an
opinion; swallow &c (credulity) 486.
cause to be believed &c v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of,
gain the confidence of, assure; convince, convict^, convert; wean, bring
round; bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c (teach) 537; cram down the
throat; produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home
go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c v., be
current &c adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.
Adj. believing &c v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure,
satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.
under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated
confiding, suspectless^; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of
suspicion; credulous &c 486; wedded to.
believed &c v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.
worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable,
trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c 472;
fiducial^, fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.
relating to belief, doctrinal.
Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice [Lat.]; meseems^,
methinks; to the best of one’s belief; I dare say, I doubt not, I have
no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c (certainty) 474; depend upon, rely
upon it; be assured, rest assured; I’ll warrant you &c (affirmation)
Phr. experto crede [Lat.] [Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat.];
Justitiae soror incorrupta Fides [Lat.]; live to explain thy doctrine
by thy life [Prior]; stands not within the prospect of belief
[Macbeth]; tarde quae credita laedunt credimus [Lat.] [Ovid]; vide et
crede [Lat.].

485. Unbelief. Doubt — N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance^; infidelity &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.]; dissent &c 489;
change of opinion &c 484; retraction &c 607.
doubt &c (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving,
demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt^, suspicion, jealousy,
scruple, qualm; onus probandi [Lat.].
incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
[person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c 484; misbelieve^; refuse to
admit &c (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c (incredulity) 487.
doubt; be doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c adj.; diffide^; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one’s doubts.
demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider,
hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise
a doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
startle, stagger; shake one’s faith, shake one’s belief, stagger
one’s faith, stagger one’s belief.
Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.
incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to, shy as to,
suspicious of; doubting &c v.. doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; disputable;
unworthy of, undeserving of belief &c 484; questionable; suspect,
suspicious; open to suspicion, open to doubt; staggering, hard to
believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be believed, inconceivable;
impossible &c 471.
fallible &c (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of salt; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides [Lat.]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat.] [Vergil];
timeo Danaos et dona ferentes [Vergil], I fear the Greeks even when
bearing gifts, beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus Apella
[Lat.] [Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua
est suspicio [Lat.] [Syrus].

486. Credulity — N. credulity, credulousness &c adj.; cullibility^,
gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self
deception; superstition; one’s blind side; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606;
hyperorthodoxy &c 984 [Obs.]; misjudgment &c 481.
credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c adj.; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.]; follow
implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take
for gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a
conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green
cheese; take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at
straws, grasp at straws.
impose upon &c (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c 545; simple, green, soft,
childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile [Lat.]
[Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que
reluce [Sp.]; omne ignotum pro magnifico [Lat.].

487. Incredulity — N. incredulousness^, incredulity; skepticism,
pyrrhonism^; want of faith &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.].
suspiciousness &c adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c (unbelief) 485.
mistrust, cynicism.
unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c
(heterodox) 984.
V. be incredulous &c adj.; distrust &c (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one’s eyes to, shut one’s ears to; turn a deaf ear to;
hold aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri [Lat.].
Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible^; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical;

488. Assent — N. assent, assentment^; acquiescence, admission; nod;
accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c 23; affirmance, affirmation;
recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith.
unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox
populi; popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public
opinion; concurrence &c (of causes) 178; cooperation &c (voluntary)
ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance,
visa; indorsement &c (record) 551 [Obs.].
consent &c (compliance) 762.
pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure.
V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c
23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent,
coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c adj.; go along with,
chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one’s
views, agree in opinion; vote, give one’s voice for; recognize;
subscribe to, conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say
aye to.
acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c (yield)
762; come round to; abide by; permit &c 760.
arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to
terms, come to an agreement.
confirm, affirm; ratify, appprove, indorse, countersign;
corroborate &c 467.
go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow
with the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be
one of the guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don’t make
waves; be in every mouth.
Adj. assenting &c v.; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at
one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c 602.
uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.
carried, agreed, nem.
con. [Lat.], nemine contradicente [Lat.], &c adv.; unanimous;
agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation.
affirmative &c 535.
Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well
and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, ‘thou hast said’, you
said it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that’s just
it, indeed, certainly, you bet, certes [Lat.], ex concesso [Lat.]; of
course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally,
be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c 602.
affirmatively, in the affirmative.
OK, all right, might as well, why not? with one consent, with one
voice, with one accord; unanimously, una voce, by common consent, in
chorus, to a man; nem.
con, nemine contradicente [Lat.]; nemine dissentiente [Lat.];
without a dissentient voice; as one man, one and all, on all hands.
Phr. avec plaisir [Fr.]; chi tace accousente [It]; the public mind is
the creation of the Master-Writers [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass
it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you’re ready; anytime you’re

489. Dissent — N. dissent; discordance &c (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
nonconformity &c (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy,
schism; disaffection; secession &c 624; recantation &c 607.
dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c 832; cavilling.
protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c
(rejection) 764.
dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
refusal &c 764.
V. dissent, demur; call in question &c (doubt) 485; differ in opinion,
disagree; say no &c 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one’s voice against, repudiate; contradict &c (deny)
have no notion of, differ toto caelo [Lat.]; revolt at, revolt
from the idea.
shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant^.
secede; recant &c 607.
Adj. dissenting &c v.; negative &c 536; dissident, dissentient;
unconsenting &c (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring^; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
discontented &c 832; unwilling &c 603; extorted.
sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
Adv. no &c 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
Int. God forbid!, not for the world; I’ll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat.] [Terence];
tant s’en faut [Fr.]; il s’en faut bien [Fr.]; no way; by no means;
count me out.

490. Knowledge — N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence^;
acquaintance, experience, ken [Scot.], privity^, insight, familiarity;
comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c (judgment)
480; intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition;
light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn;
scent, suspicion; impression &c (idea) 453; discovery &c 480.1.
system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy,
pansophy^; acroama^; theory, aetiology^, etiology; circle of the
sciences; pandect^, doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia,
encyclopedia; school &c (system of opinions) 484.
tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c (language) 560.
erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters;
literature; book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania^,
bibliolatry^; information, general information; store of knowledge &c;
education &c (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture^, attainments;
acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical
knowledge &c (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c
(beginning) 66.
deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate
knowledge, acroatic knowledge^, acroamatic knowledge^, vast knowledge,
extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning;
omniscience, pantology^.
march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science,
advance of learning; schoolmaster abroad.
[person who knows much] scholar &c 492.
V. know, ken [Scot.], scan, wot^; wot aware^, be aware of &c adj.; ween^,
weet^, trow^, have, possess.
conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy
[Slang], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive,
see, get a sight-of, experience.
know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of;
be au courant &c adj.; have in one’s head, have at one’ fingers ends;
know by heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des
cartes [Fr.], know what’s what &c 698.
see one’s way; discover &c 480.1.
come to one’s knowledge &c (information) 527.
Adj. knowing &c v.; cognitive; acroamatic^.
aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made
acquainted with; privy to, no stranger to; au fait with, au courant; in
the secret; up to, alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let
into; apprized of, informed of; undeceived.
proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong
with, at home in; conversant with, familiar with.
erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well
informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd,
savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book-
learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.
known &c v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received,
notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words,
familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace.
cognoscible^, cognizable.
Adv. to one’s knowledge, to the best of one’s knowledge.
Phr. one’s eyes being opened &c (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c’est
tout pardonner [Fr.], to know all is to pardon all; empta dolore docet
experientia [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; half our knowledge we must
snatch not take [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher [G.], years teach
more than books [G.]; knowledge comes but wisdom lingers [Tennyson];
knowledge is power [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; nec
scire fas est omnia [Lat.] [Horace]; the amassed thought and experience
of innumerable minds [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht
heiss [G.].

491. Ignorance — N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa [Lat.], crass
ignorance, ignorance crasse [Fr.]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance^;
unconsciousness &c adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension,
inexperience, simplicity.
unknown quantities, x, y, z.
sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark
[Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism^, glimmering,
dilettantism; bewilderment &c (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.
[Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism^;
Philister^, Philistine.
V. be ignorant &c adj.; not know &c 490; know not, know not what, know
nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have
the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.
ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c (conceal) 528.
see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a
glimmering &c n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c
(unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one
self to say.
Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised,
unapprized^, unwitting, unweeting^, unconscious; witless, weetless^; a
stranger to; unconversant^.
uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught,
uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened;
Philistine; behind the age.
shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned,
illiterate; unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered,
unbookish; empty-headed, dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic; in the dark;
benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked; misinformed; au
bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at sea &c
(uncertain) 475; caught tripping.
unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained,
uninvestigated^, unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c
528; novel.
Adv. ignorantly &c adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows;
not that one knows.
Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows.
Phr. ignorance never settles a question [Disraeli]; quantum animis
erroris inest! [Lat.] [Ovid]; small Latin and less Greek [B.
Jonson]; that unlettered small-knowing soul [Love’s Labor’s Lost];
there is no darkness but ignorance [Twelfth Night].

492. Scholar — N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman^,
professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist^; master of arts,
doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist,
clerk; sophist, sophister^; linguist; glossolinguist, philologist;
philologer^; lexicographer, glossographer; grammarian; litterateur
[Fr.], literati, dilettanti, illuminati, cogniscenti [It]; fellow,
Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah, munshi^, Sanskritish; sinologist,
sinologue^; Mezzofanti^, admirable Crichton, Mecaenas.
bookworm, helluo librorum [Lat.]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac^;
bluestocking, bas-bleu [Fr.]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium
Baccalaureus [Lat.], Artium Magister [Lat.].
learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum [Lat.]; man of
learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius.
antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.
sage &c (wise man) 500.
pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr.
Pangloss; pantologist^, criminologist.
schoolboy &c (learner) 541.
Adj. learned &c 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.
Phr. he was a scholar and a ripe and good one [Henry VIII]; the
manifold linguist [All’s Well That Ends Well].

493. Ignoramus — N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
[insulting terms for ignorant person:] (imbecility) 499 (folly)
501 moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [Vulg.].
[person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist^,
smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541;
lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless^, shallow; ignorant &c 491.
Phr. a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits [Pope].

494. [Object of knowledge.] Truth — N. fact, reality &c (existence) 1;
plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c (principle) 5; truth,
verity; gospel, gospel truth, God’s honest truth; orthodoxy &c 983.1;
authenticity; veracity &c 543; correctness, correctitude^.
accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c adj.; precision,
delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork
precision &c (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.
orthology^; ipsissima verba [Lat.]; realism.
plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed
truth, unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth;
nuda veritas [Lat.]; the very thing; not an illusion &c 495; real Simon
Pure; unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth
and nothing but the truth; just the thing.
V. be true &c adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring;
hold good, hold true, hold water.
render true, prove true &c adj.; substantiate &c (evidence) 467.
get at the truth &c (discover) 480.1.
Adj. real, actual &c (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct;
certain &c 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively
true &c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious
&c 543; unreconfuted^, unconfuted^; unideal^, unimagined; realistic.
exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so,
so; strict, severe; close &c (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual,
mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious,
particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut.
verified, empirically true, experimentally verified,
substantiated, proven (demonstrated) 478.
rigorously true, unquestionably true.
true by definition.
genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c 983.1; official, ex
pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated,
unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka^.
well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid;
undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic,
Adv. truly &c adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth &c
(veracity) 543; certainly &c (certain) 474; actually &c (existence) 1;
in effect &c (intrinsically) 5.
exactly &c adj.; ad amussim [Lat.]; verbatim, verbatim et
literatim [Lat.]; word for word, literally, literatim [Lat.], totidem
vervis [Lat.], sic, to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis
[Lat.]; ad unguem [Lat.]; to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a
tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre [Fr.]; neither more nor
less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports [Fr.];
at any rate, at all events; strictly speaking.
Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; en suivant la
verite [Fr.]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat.]; la verita e figlia del empo
[It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.], crazy people and children
tell the truth; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat.] [Cicero];
veritas nunquam perit [Lat.] [Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat.]
[Seneca]; the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; just
the facts, ma’am, just the facts [Dragnet].

495. Error — N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension,
misstanding^, misunderstanding; inexactness &c adj.; laxity;
misconstruction &c (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c
(misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c 477; mis-statement, mis-report;
mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes,
oversight, misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose
thread; trip, stumble &c (failure) 732; botchery &c (want of skill) 699
[Obs.]; slip of the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the
pen; lapsus linguae [Lat.], clerical error; bull &c (absurdity) 497;
illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble;
self-decit, self-deception; mists of error.
heresy &c (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c (insanity) 503; false
light &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (fancy) 515; fable &c
(untruth) 546; bias &c (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c v..
V. be erroneous &c adj.. cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray,
lead into error; beguile, misinform &c (misteach) 538 [Obs.]; delude;
give a false impression, give a false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive
&c 545; lie &c 544.
err; be in error &c adj., be mistaken &c v.; be deceived &c
(duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall
into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c n.; be in the
wrong, blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon,
miscount, miscalculate &c (misjudge) 481.
play at cross purposes, be at cross purposes &c (misinterpret)
trip, stumble; lose oneself &c (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail
&c 732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c
(mismanage) 699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without
one’s host; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream
&c (imagine) 515.
Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious, apocryphal,
unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c 4; heretical &c
(heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c 477.
inexact, unexact inaccurate^, incorrect; indefinite &c (uncertain)
illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515;
spurious &c 545; deceitful &c 544; perverted.
controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.
exploded, refuted; discarded.
in error, under an error &c n.; mistaken &c v.; tripping &c v.;
out, out in one’s reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the
mark, wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on
a false scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the
ballpark; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out.
Adv. more or less.
Phr. errare est humanum [Lat.]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat.]
[Horace]; on the dubious waves of error tost [Cowper]; to err is human,
to forgive divine [Pope]; you lie — under a mistake [Shelley].

496. Maxim — N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm^; dictum, saying,
adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot [Fr.], motto, word, byword, moral,
phylactery, protasis^.
axiom, theorem, scholium^, truism, postulate.
first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.
reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden
rule &c (precept) 697; principle, principia [Lat.]; profession of faith
&c (belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.
accepted fact.
received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted
maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed
saying, trite saying, commonplace saying &c
Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric^; axiomatic, gnomic.
Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

497. Absurdity — N. absurdity, absurdness &c adj.; imbecility &c 499;
alogy^, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy^,
stultiloquence^; nugacity^.
blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism^, Hibernicism^; slipslop^;
anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c 477.
farce, galimathias^, amphigouri^, rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder)
59; betise [Fr.]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy^.
sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic^.
jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517;
exaggeration &c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare’s nest, quibble, self-
vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade
[Fr.], escapade.
V. play the fool &c 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess
[Fr.]; battre la campagne [Fr.]; hanemolia bazein [Gr.]; be absurd &c
Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless,
inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self-
contradictory; macaronic^, punning.
foolish &c 499; sophistical &c 477; unmeaning &c 517; without
rhyme or reason; fantastic.
Int. fiddlededee!, pish!, pho!^, in the name of the Prophet–figs!
[Horace Smith].
Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat.] [Horace]; tell it to the marines.

498. Intelligence, Wisdom — N. intelligence, capacity, comprehension,
understanding; cuteness, sabe [U.S.], savvy [U.S.]; intellect &c 450;
nous [Fr.], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit, gumption, quick
parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen, subtlety,
penetration, perspicacy^, perspicacity; discernment, due sense of, good
judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c 702; refinement &c (taste)
head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle-
glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.
wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense
[U.S.], plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c adj.;
judgment; solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach
of thought, compass of thought; enlargement of mind.
genius, inspiration, geist [G.], fire of genius, heaven-born
genius, soul; talent &c (aptitude) 698.
[Wisdom in action] prudence &c 864; vigilance &c 459; tact &c 698;
foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.
a bright thought, not a bad idea.
Solomon-like wisdom.
V. be intelligent &c adj.; have all one’s wits about one; understand &c
(intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take a
see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into,
see through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c
discriminate &c 465; know what’s what &c 698; listen to reason.
Adj. intelligent [Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen,
acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen
witted, clear witted, sharp-eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-
awake; canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510;
discerning, perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute^; quick-witted,
nimble-witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive
to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas
si bete [Fr.]; acute &c 682.
wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in
one’s right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens [Lat.], judicious, strong-
unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted^, unprepossessed^; undazzled^,
unperplexed^; unwarped judgment^, impartial, equitable, fair.
cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long-
sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.
oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.
prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate,
politic, wise in one’s generation; watchful &c 459; provident &c
(prepared) 673; in advance of one’ age; wise as a serpent, wise as
Solomon, wise as Solon.
[Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well-
thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic;
expedient &c 646.
Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet [Lat.]; but with the morning
cool reflection came [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum [Lat.]; les
affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; mas vale saber que haber [Sp.]; mas
vale ser necio que profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat.] [Plautus]; nosce
te [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura
dementiae fuit [Lat.] [Seneca from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat.]
[Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Lat.] [Juvenal].

499. Imbecility. Folly — N. want of intelligence &c 498, want of
intellect &c 450; shadowness^, silliness, foolishness &c adj.;
imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness
of intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let;
stupidity, stolidity; hebetude^, dull understanding, meanest capacity,
shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699.
one’s weak side, not one’s strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation
&c (insanity) 503.
simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility^, second
childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism^; driveling.
folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity^,
inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c 477; giddiness &c
(inattention) 458; eccentricity &c 503; extravagance &c (absurdity)
497; rashness &c 863.
act of folly &c 699.
V. to be an imbecile &c adj.; have no brains, have no sense &c 498.
trifle, drivel, radoter^, dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the
fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one’s
senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one’s nose; stultify
oneself &c 699; talk nonsense &c 497.
Adj. unintelligent [Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning;
mindless, witless, reasoningless^, brainless; halfbaked; having no head
&c 498; not bright &c 498; inapprehensible^.
weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle
headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed^, chuckle
headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded^; beef headed, fat
witted, fat-headed.
weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-
brained; rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short
witted, dull witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated^, clod-pated^, addle-
pated^, addle-brained^; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak
in the upper story.
shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as
a beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse^, obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish;
asinine; inapt &c 699; prosaic &c 843; hebetudinous^.
childish, child-like; infantine^, infantile, babyish, babish^;
puerile, anile; simple &c (credulous) 486; old-womanish.
fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant;
sottish; bewildered &c 475.
blockish^, unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted,
undiscerning^, unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical^; apish; simious^.
foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical,
inept; maudlin.
narrow-minded &c 481; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; giddy &c
(thoughtless) 458; rash &c 863; eccentric &c (crazed) 503.
[Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper,
unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly,
stupid, asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised;
mal entendu [Fr.]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical^;
extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless
&c 645; inexpedient &c 647; frivolous &c (trivial) 643.
Phr. Davus sum non [Lat.] [Oedipus]; a fool’s bolt is soon shot [Henry
V.] clitellae bovi sunt impositae [Lat.] [Cicero]; fools rush in where
angels fear to tread [Pope]; il n’ a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr.]; the
bookful blockhead, ignorantly read [Pope]; to varnish nonsense with the
charms of sound [Churchill].

500. Sage — N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of
the age; longhead^, thinker; intellectual, longhair.
authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo [Lat.], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, second Daniel.
man of learning &c 492; expert &c 700; wizard &c 994.
wiseacre [Iron.], bigwig, know-it-all; poor man’s Einstein.
Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
Phr. barba tenus sapientes [Lat.].



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